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world history to 1500 midterm exam flashcards

Sumer An ancient civilization that emerged in Mesopotamia around 4500 BCE, known for its innovations in agriculture, city-building, and cuneiform writing.
Cuneiform A system of writing used in ancient Sumer, consisting of wedge-shaped marks made on clay tablets with a stylus. First written language
Epic of Gilgamesh poem from ancient Mesopotamia, considered one of the earliest works of literature, that tells the story of a legendary king and his quest for immortality.
Hammurabi’s Code A set of laws created by the Babylonian king Hammurabi around 1750 BCE, inscribed on a stele and considered one of the earliest examples of written law.
Assyrian Empire An empire that dominated the Near East from the 9th to 7th centuries BCE, known for its military prowess and extensive conquests.
Phoenicians An ancient seafaring people who dominated trade in the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BCE, known for their inventions of the alphabet and purple dye.
Abraham A patriarch of the Israelites, according to the Hebrew Bible, who is considered the father of monotheism and who made a covenant with God.
Kingdom of Israel A kingdom established in ancient Palestine around 1000 BCE, ruled by a succession of monarchs, and eventually conquered by the Assyrians.
Hittite Empire An empire that emerged in Anatolia in the 2nd millennium BCE, known for its military power and contributions to metallurgy and diplomacy.
Nubia A region in Africa that was home to several kingdoms, including the Kingdom of Kush and the Kingdom of Meroë, known for their trade with Egypt and development of their own unique culture.
Bantu Migration: The movement of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in West Africa to other parts of the continent, beginning around 2000 BCE and lasting for several thousand years.
Kingdom of Kush An ancient kingdom in Nubia that emerged around 1000 BCE and was known for its military strength and monumental architecture.
Kingdom of Meroë A kingdom in Nubia that succeeded the Kingdom of Kush and flourished from around 300 BCE to 300 CE, known for its iron production and unique script.
Kushite pharaohs A line of pharaohs who ruled Egypt from the 8th to 4th centuries BCE, originating from Nubia and known for their military campaigns and architectural achievements.
Thutmosis III n Egyptian pharaoh who reigned during the New Kingdom period, known for his military conquests and expansion of the empire.
Akhenaten An Egyptian pharaoh who reigned during the New Kingdom period, known for his religious reforms and establishment of a monotheistic cult centered on the god Aten.
Ma’at he ancient Egyptian concept of order, justice, and truth, represented by the goddess Ma’at.
Negative Confession A statement of innocence recited by the deceased in ancient Egyptian funerary texts, in which they deny having committed various sins
Harkhuf’s Expedition An expedition to Nubia undertaken by the Egyptian explorer Harkhuf during the Old Kingdom period, known for its discovery of exotic animals and trade goods.
Oracle bones Inscribed animal bones or shells used in ancient China for divination, where the diviner would ask a question and interpret the cracks on the bone or shell
King Wu Ding/Lady Fu Hao A ruler and his wife who lived during the Shang Dynasty in ancient China, known for their military campaigns and lavish burials.
Mandate of Heaven An ancient Chinese concept that held that a ruler's right to govern was granted by the gods, but could be taken away if they failed to rule justly and effectively.
Confucius A philosopher and teacher who lived in ancient China during the Zhou Dynasty, known for his teachings on ethics, morality, and government.
ren A Confucian virtue that emphasizes benevolence, humanity, and kindness towards others
li A Confucian concept that refers to the correct way of doing things, including etiquette, rituals, and social norms.
xiao A Confucian virtue that emphasizes filial piety, or respect for one's parents and ancestors.
Daoism A philosophical and religious tradition that emerged in ancient China, emphasizing harmony with nature, simplicity, and the cultivation of inner virtue.
Legalism A political and philosophical system that emerged in ancient China, emphasizing strict laws, harsh punishments, and a strong centralized government.
The Analects A collection of sayings and teachings attributed to Confucius, compiled after his death.
Han Feizi A philosopher and statesman who lived in ancient China during the Warring States period, known for his contributions to Legalist philosophy.
Inscription on Mt. Langya An ancient Chinese text inscribed on a stone pillar, attributed to the philosopher and statesman Lü Buwei.
Sima Qian An ancient Chinese historian who lived during the Han Dynasty, known for his work Records of the Grand Historian, a comprehensive history of China up to his time.
Han Wu Di A Chinese emperor who reigned during the Han Dynasty, known for his military campaigns and administrative reforms.
Qin Shi Huang Di/First Emperor The first emperor of a unified China, who ruled during the Qin Dynasty and is known for his construction of the Great Wall and his standardization of weights, measures, and writing.
Ban Zhao A Chinese historian and writer who lived during the Han Dynasty, known for her work Lessons for Women, a guide to women's education and behavior.
Caste/varna A system of social stratification in ancient India, based on birth and occupation
Harrapan/Indus River Valley Civilization An ancient civilization that emerged in the Indus River Valley around 2600 BCE, known for its sophisticated urban planning and culture.
Purusha An ancient Indian concept that refers to the cosmic being who was sacrificed in order to create the world.
Brahma The Hindu god of creation
The Upanishads A collection of philosophical texts that form the basis of Hindu thought and belief, emphasizing the nature of the self, the universe, and ultimate reality.
dharma An ancient Indian concept that refers to the proper moral and ethical behavior for individuals and society.
moksha An ancient Indian concept that refers to liberation from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
samsara An ancient Indian concept that refers to the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
nirvana An ancient Indian concept that refers to the state of ultimate enlightenment and liberation in Buddhism.
karma An ancient Indian concept that refers to the effects of one's actions, which determine their fate in this life and in future lives.
Siddhartha Gautama The founder of Buddhism, who lived in ancient India and is known as the Buddha.
Four Noble Truths The central teachings of Buddhism, which emphasize the nature of suffering and the path to liberation from it.
Eight-fold Path The path to liberation in Buddhism, consisting of right views, intentions, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.
Middle Path The path to liberation in Buddhism, which emphasizes avoiding extremes of indulgence and asceticism.
Ashoka An Indian emperor who ruled during the Maurya Dynasty, known for his conversion to Buddhism and his edicts promoting nonviolence, religious tolerance
Mahayana Buddhism one of two major branches of buddhism. characterized by its emphasis on the Bodhisattva path, the idea that individuals can attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings, and its belief in the existence of multiple Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Theravada/Hinayana Buddhism: other major branch of buddhism. It is characterized by its emphasis on the Pali Canon, the oldest Buddhist scriptures, and its focus on the individual's path to enlightenment.
Rock and Pillar Decrees series of inscriptions written by the Indian emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE. They are written in several languages and scripts and are considered some of the earliest known examples of Indian writing.
Bhagavad Gita sacred Hindu text that is part of the epic poem, the Mahabharata. It contains a dialogue between the god Krishna and the warrior Arjuna on the nature of duty, karma, and the ultimate goal of life.
ahimsa a principle of nonviolence and non-injury that is central to Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The Jain an ancient Indian religion that emphasizes nonviolence and asceticism. Jains believe in the existence of multiple gods and seek to attain liberation from the cycle of reincarnation through a life of spiritual purification.
Mahavira a spiritual teacher and the founder of the Jain religion. He lived in India in the 6th century BCE and is known for his teachings on nonviolence and spiritual purification.
Laws of Manu also known as the Manu Smriti, is an ancient Hindu text that contains codes of conduct for individuals in different stages of life and in different social classes.
Cyrus the founder of the Achaemenid Empire in ancient Persia. He is known for his military conquests and his policy of religious tolerance and respect for different cultures.
Zoroastrianism ancient Persian religion that is based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster. It emphasizes the worship of one god, Ahura Mazda, and the importance of good thoughts, words, and deeds.
Darius I a king of the Achaemenid Empire in ancient Persia. He is known for his military conquests and his efforts to centralize the Persian government and establish a system of law.
Xerxes king of the Achaemenid Empire in ancient Persia. He is known for his military campaigns, including the invasion of Greece, and his construction of major building projects.
Minoan Civilization a Bronze Age civilization that flourished on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean from approximately 2600 to 1400 BCE. It is known for its art, architecture, and trade networks.
Mycenaean Greece a Bronze Age civilization that flourished on the mainland of Greece from approximately 1600 to 1100 BCE. It is known for its palace
Linear A and B Two scripts used by the Minoans and Mycenaeans, respectively, in ancient Greece. Linear B is decipherable, while Linear A has yet to be fully deciphered.
Polis A Greek city-state, typically consisting of an urban center and its surrounding countryside
Solon A statesman and lawmaker of ancient Athens who reformed the city's laws and constitution in the 6th century BCE.
Cleisthenes A statesman of ancient Athens who is credited with creating the first democratic constitution in the city in 508/7 BCE.
Helots A slave population in ancient Sparta who were conquered Messenians and forced to work the land for their Spartan masters.
Ephors Five magistrates in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the supervision of the kings and the administration of the state.
Lycurgus A legendary lawgiver of ancient Sparta who is credited with creating its military and social system.
Plato A Greek philosopher and student of Socrates who founded the Academy in Athens and is known for his writings on ethics, metaphysics, and political theory.
Socrates A Greek philosopher known for his method of questioning, which aimed at uncovering the truth by exposing contradictions in his interlocutors' beliefs.
Aristotle A Greek philosopher and student of Plato who wrote extensively on subjects including ethics, metaphysics, politics, and biology.
Persian Wars A series of conflicts between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE, including the famous battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
Great Peloponnesian War A conflict between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies that lasted from 431 to 404 BCE and resulted in the eventual defeat of Athens.
Delian League A military alliance of Greek city-states formed after the Persian Wars, led by Athens.
Stoicism A philosophical school founded in Athens in the 3rd century BCE that emphasized the pursuit of virtue and the acceptance of fate.
Diogenes A Greek philosopher and founder of the Cynic school, known for his unconventional and ascetic lifestyle.
Alexander the Great King of Macedon who conquered much of the known world in the 4th century BCE, including the Persian Empire, and spread Greek culture and ideas throughout his empire.
Hellenistic Referring to the period of Greek history following Alexander the Great's conquests, characterized by the spread of Greek culture and ideas throughout the Mediterranean and Near East
Etruscans An ancient civilization in central Italy that was influential in the development of Roman culture
Senate The highest legislative body in ancient Rome, composed of patricians (aristocrats).
Patrician A member of the aristocracy in ancient Rome.
Plebeian A commoner in ancient Rome
Tribal Assembly A political body in ancient Rome made up of plebeians, which eventually gained significant power in the Roman Republic
Struggle of the Orders A series of political conflicts in ancient Rome between the patricians and plebeians over political power and rights
Punic Wars A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage that lasted from 264 to 146 BCE and resulted in the eventual defeat of Carthage.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Brothers and tribunes of the plebs in the Roman Republic who advocated for land reform and were both killed in political violence.
Julius Caesar A Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the end of the Roman
Augustus First emperor of Rome, who reigned from 27 BC to 14 AD and oversaw significant expansion and development of the Roman Empire.
Herod the Great King of Judea, appointed by the Romans, known for his ambitious building projects and his brutal suppression of potential rivals
Jesus of Nazareth Religious leader who lived in the 1st century AD, believed by Christians to be the Son of God and the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible
Sermon on the Mount A well-known discourse of Jesus found in the New Testament, which contains many of his teachings on topics such as humility, love, forgiveness, and the nature of God's kingdom.
Paul An important figure in the early Christian church, who wrote many letters to communities of believers throughout the Mediterranean world and played a key role in the spread of Christianity beyond its Jewish roots.
Peter One of the twelve apostles of Jesus and an important leader in the early Christian church, who is traditionally considered the first bishop of Rome and the first pope of the Catholic Church.
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