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Aberant Pub Hea ex2

NYCC public health exam 2 AIDS

HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDs is characterized by HIV _____________, HIV _________ __________, and/or certain diseases due to immunodeficiency in a person with laboratory evidence for HIV infection or without certainother causes of immunodeficiency. encephalopathy, wasting syndrome
Is just the presence of HIV a diagnosis of AIDS? no
In order to be diagnosed with AIDs, what 3 things must be present: 1-evidence of HIV infection, 2-Immunodeficiency, 3-Opportunistic infections or cancer
How many people worldwide are estimated to be infected with HIV? 50,000,000
Region of the world with the highest number os HIV infection Sub-saharan Africa
Region with the highest growing population of HIV infections Asia (heat of the moment)
Worldwide, how many people ages 15-24 become infected every minute? 5
Worldwide, what percentage of all adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse? 80%
What accounts for 90% of HIV infections worldwide in infants and children? mother to child transmission
Estimated number of persons infected with HIV in the US 1-1.2 million
Of thes 1-1.2 million people infected with HIV in the US, what fraction have no idea they are HIV positive? 1/3
How many new HIV infections each year in the US 40,000-50,000 new cases per year
What percentage of the 40,000-50,000 new cases of HIV infection in the US are men? 70%
year of first recorded US case of death from HIV-AIDS 1980
In 1981, Dr. Curran from the CDC made the erroneous statement>>> there is no apparent danger to non-homosexuals from contagion, etc.
Despite Dr. Curran's stupid statement in 1981, by 1982 there were over 400 cases from 23 cases reported to the CDC. In what two populations were these cases reported? Hatians and haemophiliacs
In 1982, along with Hatian and haemophiliac reports of infection, what was the other "first" reported regarding HIV infection? mother to infant (so it was no longer a "gay disease")
In 1982 with the Hatians, haemophiliacs, and mother to infant transmission, people began to fear what kind of transmission of HIV person to person (because gay people aren't people. what?)
In 1983, we stopped suspecting gays and Hatians and started suspecting __________as the reason for HIV transmission? blood
In what year did Pasteur Institute isolate a virus and what did they name it? 1983, LAV
LAV stands for Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus
Does the Pasteur Institute know that LAV is the same as HIV when they first identify it? no
Pastuer Inst. sends LAV to the CDC and Dr. Gallo at the NIH in 1983. Even though Dr. Gallo would get credit for the discovery, what year did everyone find out LAV and HIV were the same thing? 1985
In what year between 1980 and 1990 did discrimination against HIV-infected people run rampant? 1983
examples of rampant discrimination in 1983 against HIV-infected people NYC landlords evicting them, Soc Security admin begins phone interviews instead of face to face, funeral directors refuse to embalm, med personnel refuse to treat, people fired, children pulled from school
in 1983, the year of heinous discrimination agains infected persons, what was begun at San Francisco General Hospital? the first dedicated AIDs unit
The year before it was discovered that LAV and HIV were the same virus, what did Margaret Heckler of DHHS declare? that Dr. Gallo of the National Cancer Institute had isolated the virus, named it HTLV-III and there would be a commercially available test for the virus
In 1986, the International Committee on Viral Taxonomy named LAV and HTLV-III a single name: HIV
In what year was AZT first used as an anti-AIDs drug, after it had been used as an anti-cancer drug in 1964? 1986
In 1987 when Princess Diana was still alive, she visited the first AIDS hospital ward in England and to the horror of law-abiding citizens everywhere, she shook hands with AIDS patients WITHOUT WEARING PROTECTIVE GLOVES (faint)
In 1988, the year I graduated high school, federal funds were prohibited for funding needle exchange programs in NYC and San Francisco
In what year does AIDs become the leading cause of death in the US? and in what age group? 1994, ages 25-44
Since 1981, there have been _____________deaths due to AIDs. 250,000
Between 1981 and 1994 when AIDS became the leading cause of death in the US for the 25-44 age group, how many people died? 250,000
Between 1995-1996, what becomes the standard drug treatment for AIDs? The AIDs cocktail, a triple drug combination therapy. Patients now live longer with HIV & AIDS
In 2000, the CDC reports that AIDS affects __x more African-Americans than whites. 6x
In 2000, the CDC reports that AIDS affects Hispanics ___x more than whites. 3x
In 2002, the CDC states that AIDS is the #___ cause of death of African-American women in the US. #10
First major figure to die of AIDS (1985) Rock Hudson
The _________________________ was passed by congress to provide grants to improve the quality and availability of care to those who are HIV+ (1990) Ryan White CARE Act
In 1987, Liberace died of AIDS. In 1991, what famous basketball player announces he's HIV+? Magic Johnson
Rudolf Nuryev, Arthur Ashe, Amanda Blake, Freddy Mercury, Jerry Smith, Halston, Thomas Waddell, Esteban DeJesus, Ian Charlesson, Brad Davis famous people dead from AIDS
the big personal rights controversy with AIDS public rights or HIV+ rights (ie, notification of doctors, sex partners, dentists, etc)
What two assholes made even bigger assholes of themselves than a person could possibly imagine? Jerry Falwell, Pat Buchanan
Are Americans informed about the transmission of HIV? no
there is an AIDS cluster in southwestern New York state. What county? Chautauqua
fluids of HIV transmission (5) semen, blood, vaginal fluid, breast milk, other bodily fluids containing blood
Physical modes of transmission (3) 1. sex (any blood contact), 2. blood to blood, 3. mother to fetus or infant (in utero or breastfeeding)
behaviors of high risk AIDS unprotected any kind of sex, needle-sharing, blood contact, multiple sex partners
moderate behavior risk for AIDS sex toy sharing (eww), condom sex, unprotected oral sex, oral-anal
low risk AIDS behaviors protected blood contact (latex), oral sex with condom, protected vaginal intercourse
safe from AIDS behaviors abstinence, mutually monogamous rel. with non-inf. person
the best single predictor defining AIDS total CD4 Lymphocytes
CD4 lymphocytes best predictor for serious opportunistic infections that define AIDS
level of CD4 cells in healthy adult 1000+/-200 cu. mm.(between 800-1200)
Way to follow disease progression is to count CD4 - can track HIV status to full-blown AIDS
when the CD4 count drops to ________, symptoms of AIDS can be seen 600
When the CD4 count hits __, the opportunistic infections characterizing AIDS appear 200 (opportunistic infection)
What is the CD4 down limit at which AIDS patients can still be helped? 200 (opportunistic infection)
when the CD4 count drops to _______, death is imminent. 50 - need triple digits to stay alive
can a patient recover from below 50 CD4 count? rare
what is a CD4 count? T-lymphocyte level
what kind of inhibitors are used in AIDS meds? protease inhibitors
#1 cause of AIDS-related death pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumocystis pneumonia organism is Pneumocystis, a _________ protozoa
#2 cause of AIDS related death, after pneumocystis pneumonia Crypt-o-sporidosis
Cryptosporidosis is sure to put you in a crypt. The organism Cryptosporium sp. is a _________ Protozoa
#3 cause of AIDS-related death is a bacterium called Mycobacterium ____________ and M. avium. Tuberculosis
#4 cause of AIDS death is ____________, a gondii protozoa Toxoplasmosis
Neu Crypts are Tu Toxic for Canadians PNeumonia Cryptosporidis are Tuberculosis Toxoplasmosis for Candidiasis
Candidiasis is a yeast infection - the organism is Candid albicans
What number is Candidiasis on the AIDS-related death list? #6
Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Salmonellosis are all opportunistic infections associated with AIDS
2 cancers associated with AIDS Kaposi's Sarcoma, Primary Beta-cell carcinoma
sharing of cigarettes, cigars, pipes with inf. person not
receiving blood from an HIV infected person verified
HIV infected mother to fetus verified
HIV infected father to fetus not
mosquitoes to person not
lip kissing with HIV infected not
tongue or "wet kissing" with HIV infected not
sharing eating utensils with HIV infected not
sharing toilet facilities with HIV infected not
sharing razors with HIV infected verified
sharing linens/bed/pillows with HIV infected not
HIV infected breast milk to infant verified
sneezed, coughed upon by HIV infected not
anal intercourse with infected verified
HIV infected female to male intercourse verified
female to female sex not
CPR on HIV positive not
HIV patient to medical worker verified
HIV medical worker to patient verified
Swimming in pool with HIV infected not
a positive HIV antibody test means you have AIDS false
a positive HIV antibody test means you have been exposed to the virus true, or there wouldn't be antibodies
HIV can be transmitted by a person without symptoms true
babies born with AIDS dev natural immunity and will be fine false
pregnant women transmit AIDS to fetus true
Most HIV infected became that way due to intravenous drug use false
condoms significantly reduce AIDS transmission true
the AIDS virus can remain virulent in dried blood outside the body for several hours false (it's a weak virus)
to date 2005 there are no confirmed cases of female to female sexual transmission of HIV (even due to scissoring, Erik). true, none so far to June 2006
what year did AIDS reporting to state health dept of NY begin 2000
what has to be reported by law to NY state health depts by docs and labs since 2000 HIV infection and HIV illness
how is HIV infection/illness determined CD4 and viral load testing
since 1983, what has been required reporting AIDS, but now people live longer with HIV before dev AIDS so HIV is also required reporting
doctors and labs in NY state must report 2 things: names of people with AIDS/HIV, names of sex and needle-sharing partners of people who test positive for HIV that are known to the doctor
getting an AIDS test is voluntary true
giving names of your partners or junkie friends is voluntary true
you can work with your doc or health dept to inform your partners one of three ways: 1.PNAP (partner notification assistance program) of health dept or CNAP (contact notification assistance program in NYC), 2. use your doc and these two programs, 3. tell your partners yourself
which is anonymous, PAP or CNAP CNAP
what will PAP or CNAP do if you opt to tell your partners yourself follow up and if you didn't, they will tell them and bust you anyway
can you be penalized and treatment denied if you choose not disclose the names of your partners to a doc or public health worker? no, but you can be arrested and tried for murder if you knowingly transmit the disease
you should get tested if you ever had sex without a latex condom, shared needles to shoot up, shared tat or piercing needles, had an STD or STI, had many sex partners
are there meds that reduce a woman's chance of passing HIV along to her fetus? yes, so get tested if preggers or planning to be
2 types of HIV testing? anonymous and confidential
anonymous testing does not involve your doctor
can you change your status from anon to confidential if you test at a public health clinic and turn out to have HIV? yes
will the health dept share your test info with other govt agencies/ no, only for health dept to track epidemic or for partner notification
will they tell INS? no
If I'm under 18, will the health dept notify my parents that I've been HIV tested? no, not even if you are HIV+
is there discrepancy in our notes about PAP vs PNAP? yes, but both mean partner identification assistance and it's too late to ask the prof
will PNAP/CNAP tell your partner your name when they inform them they may be at risk for HIV?AIDS? no
who can provide the list of HIV heathcare providers in NY state NY State HEalth Dept
can I get HIV care assistance even if Im on medicade or don't have ins? yes, through the AIDS Drug Assistance PRogram (ADAP)+
if you feel you've been discriminated against because of your HIV/AIDS status, what to do? file complaint with NY State DIvision of Human RIghts Office of AIDS DIscrimination Issues(NYSDHROADI) NY State Dis H-ROAD-I
Created by: hecutler