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World Civ

The Americas- Test #4

What is the early peoples of the Americas called? Amerindians
Where were the key areas of development of the Americas? Plateaus of Central Americas, Gulf of Mexico, and modern day Guatemala
What was the result of these civilizations being isolated? they were deprived them of access to technology and cultural development
Recently, similar characteristics were discovered between Amerindians and Asian people. What does this confirm? The thought that humans crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the Americas between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago
Olmec intensive agriculture and carving of stone ornaments, tools, and monuments
What are examples of the stone monuments carved by the Olmec? San Lorenzo and La Venta
Zapotecs developed simultaneously with the Olmecs at Monte Alban, temples and pyramids
Zapotec population about 20,000
Zapotec government Theocratic
Theocratic government elite class of nobles and priests ruling the population that primarily consists of farmers and artisans
What was the first major metropolitan city? Teotihuacan (30 miles north of Mexico City)
Teotihuacan flourished for... nearly a century
Why did Teotihuacan collapse? mysterious circumstances
Teotihuacan had an extensive trade network that included... cacao, rubber, feathers, and vegetables
Mayans were cultivating... corn, yams, and manioc
Cacao trees and sources of obsidian were... prized trade items
Chocolate a beverage of the elite beans were currency the rest of the fruit was fermented into beer
Mayan rulers were ____________. powerful
What was Mayan rulers' wealth most likely based on? their ownership of land
Mayan nobles became... priests and scribes
What happened as soceitiy's wealth grew? the role of artisans and traders wealth grew
What job did most of the population on the peninsula have? farmers
Mayan men responsible for farming and hunting
Mayan women responsible for homemaking and preparing cornmeal
Noble women might have... played a more important role in political and religious life
Describe the rivalry among Mayan city-states endemic and often involving bloody clashes
Rock paintings and carvings depict... society with waging war and capturing people for sacrifice
Maya religion was... polytheistic with shared characteristics among deities of nearby cultures
What were scribes responsible for? What did they write on? compiling official records; deerskin or strips of bark
What does recent evidence suggest about the fall of the Mayan civilization say caused the decline? over cultivation of land because of the growing population (reduced crop yield) and a several hundred years long drought
What group moved to the Valley of Mexico after the fall of Teotihuacan? the Mexica
Where did the Mexica get their modern name? the legend that says the came from Aztlan (modern name = Aztec)
The Mexica were led by ______________ who had both a __________________. a monarch; divine and secular character
How did the Mexica monarch obtain power? not by law of succession but his successor was selected from within the royal family by council of senior officials
The rest of the Mexica population consisted of... commoners, indentured workers, and slaves
Most indentured workers were... landless laborers who contracted to work on the nobles' estates
The Mexica gender roles were... rigid
Mexica men war
Mexica women keep house, weave textiles, and raise kids
How many deities did the Aztecs have? over 100
Tlaloc nature spirit, rain god
Huitzilopochtli patron deities, symbol of Aztecs themselves
Aztec architecture, art, and sculpture had ___________ significance. religious
In the center of the capital city of Tenochtitlan was the ______________, dominated by________________. sacred precinct; a massive pyramid dedicated to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc
Eastern Woodlands Amerindians cultivated in a... systematic way
Where was the first shift to systematic farming? along the MS River Valley- Ohio, Indiana, Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico
What were the staple crops of the MS River Valley? maize, squash, beans, and various grasses
What did Hopewall Culture (Ohio) build? "mound cities"
What did archaeologists find at Canokia (near East St Louis, IL)? a burial mound more than 98 feet tall with a base larger than the Great Pyramids in Egypt
How did Amerindians west of the Mississippi live? by hunting and food gathering
What were the Pueblo people known as by the Navajo? Aansazi
What did the roads created by the Pueblo people do? facilitate an extensive exchange of tech, products, and ideas throughout the region
In Chaco Canyon (southern NM), what did the Pueblo people build? What did this create? a walled city with dozens of three-story communal houses; the city of Mes Verde in southwest CO
South America has vast extremes in... climate and geography
What is South America's geography dominated by? the Amazon River and dense rainforests and in the south, prairies and mountains
How many years has South America inhabited people? 12,000
What was used in the Andes as early as 2000 BCE? irrigated farming
Caral (14 miles from the coast) is a highly... publicized site
Caral is a ___________ year old city that sat _______________. 4500; on top of a 60 foot pyramid
What did people grow in Caral? squash, beans, and tomatoes
With the emergence of what, when did the Caval culture peak? the 1st millennium with the emergence of Chavin style
Where did the name Chavin style come from? the modern day city of Chavin de Huantar
The Moche civilization of ___________ occupied ___________. north Peru in Moche River Valley; 2500 square miles
What was the population of the capital city of Moche? 10,000 plus people
What was the Moche civilization dominated by? an adobe pyramid 100 feet high
Because of the _____climate in the Moche River Valley, what did the people build? arid; a sophisticated irrigation system
How did the Inca civilization begin? a small community in Cuzco
Who was the leader of the Inca? What did he do? Pachakuti; launched a campaign to conquer the entire region and expanded as far as Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of Amazon basin
Pachakuti created ____________ and because of his concern for mathematical precision he______________. highly centralized state; divided empire into provinces and districts
How big were the Inca provinces and districts and who ruled them? 10.000; rules by governor related to the royal family
Pachakuti created... 28,400 miles of highways and roads that extended for 3,000 plus miles from the border of Columbia to a point south of the modern day city of Santiago, Chile
How many men were in the Inca army? 200,000
What did the Inca use to keep records instead of a writing system? knotted strings called quipu
What were the people that moved to the Caribbean Islands called? Caribs
The Caribs were more ___________ and often _________________. warlike than the people before them; drove away people who were already established in these places.
Created by: allisonmauffray
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