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AP Rutherford Hayes

Hayes' Administration

Rutherford B. Hayes Republican's nominee for president in 1877
Samuel J. Tilden forced the removal of corrupted judges in NY City and played role in destroying Tweed Ring.
Electoral Commission created to handle the situation of the Tilden getting one vote short of a simple majority.
Electoral Commission findings Finds that Hayes own by 185 to 184. Although Tilden won over 250,000 in popular votes
What did South get in return for accepting the Electoral Commission finding? pledges were made and kept to withdraw fed. troops from the South, to fund railroads in the South, and to appoint a Southerner to a Cabinet post.
What ended Reconstruction? The election of 1877 where Hayes won
Result of the end of Reconstruction black Southerners were frightened out of public affairs. The 14th and 15th Amendments were largely ignored, and blacks in the South were disenfranchised.
Pendleton Act 1883 (Arthur) competitive examinations must be given to determine which candidates qualify; fed.
What did Cleveland emphasized about in this State of the Union speech? (Cleveland) pointed out that the gov. had been collecting more in taxes than was required. He considered it intolerable that a surplus of $100 million had piled up in the Treasury.
How did Cleveland plan to cut taxes? (Cleveland) lower the tariff and put some goods on the free list
Mill Bill (Cleveland) incporated Cleveland ideas on tariff revision, passed the House but did not get through the Senate.
Knights of Labor (Cleveland) the first successful national labor union. Went on strike against the Southwest Railroad Sstem
Terence V. Powderly (Cleveland) master of the Southwest Railroad System, arranged term of settlement to the Knights.
What were some of Knights demand? (Cleveland) a grduate income tax, abolition of child labor, temperance, consumers' and producers' cooperatives, and an 8 hour day
Haymarket Square the place where meeting was held to protest the policy brutality of the previous day (policy fired into a group of strikers)
What happened at Haymarket Square? anarchists, socialist, strikers, citizens, formed a crowd. Someone thre a bomb that killed 7 and wounded 66 police offiers. Police charged the crowd with police revolvers.
Judge Joseph E. Gary informed the jury that anyone who had said or written anything that might incite the throwing of the bomb was guilty. The 8 men who were found guilty were anarchists and labor unions.
John P. Altgeld governor of IL 6 years after Haymarket situation. He pardoned the 3 men who was convicted because their trail had been unfair.
How did the public see the Knights after Haymarket bombing? union members were anarchists. This view was encouraged by the press and management to fight the Knight. Knight declined rapidly.
Examples of how the Grangers cooperated together brought supplies collectively; formed insurance companies, reameries general stores, warehouses, and factories.
Granges political, social, and economic club. Had monthly meetings that had entertainments; local officeholders would speak in the meetings; the way to get elected to office in farm community was to be well-known and liked by the Grangers; they had the votes.
Munn v. Illinois 1876 Court ruled that whenever private property was used for public interest, ti stops being only private property and was therefore subject to regulations by the gov. So Illinios law fixing a maximum charge for the storage of grain was constitutional
Munn v. Illinois Court declared it unconstitutional and void the rate-fixing laws of Illinois. This decision made it impossible for states to deal effectively with real railroad abuses
The Interstate Commerce Act 1887 - terms all charges by the railroads had to be reasonable and just; pooling was forbidden; cannot charge more for a short haul than for a long haul; schedules or rates, fares and charges had to be published and posted
interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) set up by the Interstate Commerce Act 1887, enforce Commerce Act terms
Pooling agreement among two or more railroads to charge the same rates in an area. This is to avoid competition in passenger, freight.
Was ICC successful? No, it lack power to make the railroads obey its orders; RAilroads challenge the orders of the ICC in the courts, and in the meantime, continue the bauses the ICC was trying to correct; burden of proof was on the ICC
What was the significance of the Interstate Commerce Act? it was the first federal law to regulate a major private business.
Created by: Tiffastic