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What is a gene? Region of DNA that codes for one protein or polypeptide; often widely spaced apart.
Who discovered that one gene makes one protein? Beadle and Tatum.
What is the TATA box? a promoter that tells the RNA polymerase where to start.
Does the promoter come before or after the gene? Before
What are introns? intervening sequences; junk in the gene.
Who discovered introns? What year? Philip Sharp and Richard Roberts in 1977.
What do you call the actual part of the gene? Exons.
Who found that introns are spliced out and exons are spliced together to make mRNA? What year? Randolph Wall in 1980.
What signals the end of a gene? a terminator.
DNA is transcribed to RNA. RNA is translated to what? Proteins.
What provides the instructions for every protein we will ever need? DNA (A,T,G,C; double-stranded)
What contains the copy of the protein we need RIGHT NOW? RNA (A,U,G,C; single-stranded)
What is transcription? DNA to mRNA
What is mRNA? messenger RNA. Stuff made from DNA during transcription.
What is the enzyme that assembles growing RNA chain? RNA polymerase
The DNA segments ATT AAG CCT pairs to what RNA segments? UAA TTC GGA
The strand of DNA that contains the gene is called...? the template strand or the sense strand.
The strand of DNA without the gene is called ...? the coding strand or antisense strand
What is an enhancer? the sequence of DNA that helps control transcription. It can be 1000's of bases before or after the gene.
The protein that binds to the enhancer and starts transcription is called...? the activator.
What is a silencer? its a protein that binds to the enhancer and stops transcription
Describe mRNA processing? 1. Methylated mRNA cap, 2. Poly A tail, 3. Processing
What is the Methylated mRNA cap (1st step in mRNA processing)? a backward facing guanine with methyl groups is added to the 5' front of the mRNA. It keeps mRNA from being degraded; and helps ribosomes know where to attach.
What is the Poly A tail (2nd step in mRNA processing)? approximately 200 adenines are added to the 3' end of the mRNA. It keeps mRNA from being degraded.
What is splicing (3rd step in mRNA processing)? introns are removed and exons hooked together.
What is it called when mRNA makes proteins? Translation
What is rRNA and what does it do? ribosomal RNA. It binds amino acid to the protein chain.
What is tRNA and what does it do? transfer RNA. It presents correct amino acid to the protein chain.
What is the template for tRNA? mRNA
The 3-letter piece segments of mRNA are called? codons
What is an anticodon? the 3-letter piece opposite of the codon; located on the tRNA.
What are the first three letters of the actual gene? AUG (which codes for methionine)
What is the Start codon? the first 3 letters of the actual gene (AUG).
What is the Stop codon? it tells rRNA to stop translating.
What are proteins? the cellular building blocks made of different combinations of 20 amino acids.
One amino acid is linked to the next amino acid by what? Peptide bond
2 amino acids joined together are called? a Dipeptide
What is a tripeptide? 3 amino acids joined together.
What is a polypeptide? many amino acids joined together.
What is conformation? 3 dimensional shape of a protein.
What is Primary structure? which amino acid is first, second, third, etc.
What is Secondary structure? some amino acids have structures like alpha helixes and beta pleats.
What is the name for a coiled structure with hydrogen bonds holding it together? Alpha helix
What is a beta pleat? a parallel structure with hydrogen bonds holding it together.
What is a Tertiary structure? how the alpha helixes and beta pleats interact with each other; held together by disulfide bridges.
What are Disulfide bridges? covalent bonds between sulfhydryl (-SH) groups. (The bond is broken and reformed in hair permanents.)
What is it called when 2 or more tertiary structures (polypeptides) come together? Quaternary structure.
What do you call a protein that loses its conformation (often from heat, pH, or salt)? Denaturation.
Infectious proteins without DNA or RNA are called? Prions (ex. scrapie, kuru, mad cow disease)
Give some examples of a prion? Scrapie, kuru, mad cow disease
T or F. There is evidence that show that an abnormal protein (prion) goes around converting normal proteins into more abnormal proteins. TRUE
What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)? it is a human neurological disease that is genetically inherited and transmitted through contaminated brain tissue.
What do you call a sheep neurological disease that is thought to be transmitted through eating infected meat? Scrapie
About how many cases of Mad Cow Disease have there been? 200,000
What is Mad Cow Disease? a bovine neurological disease thought to be transmitted through eating infected meat.
The U.S. found its first cow with mad cow disease in what year? 2003
What is the human neurological disease thought to be transmitted through eating cow brains infected with mad cow prion? variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). About 150 cases.
Gene activity is regulated at different steps: name 5. 1. Transcription, 2. mRNA, 3. Protein modification, 4. Enzymes, 5. Barr bodies.
T or F. In transcription, promoters turn off certain genes. FALSE (they turn them ON)
T or F. Some mRNA are very stable and last a long time, so there is plenty of time to make lots of proteins. TRUE
What happens in protein modification? methionine has to be removed from protein; phosphate can be added to activate a protein.
These speed up reactions. Enzymes
What are true about Barr bodies? Entire chromosomes can be regulated.
T or F. Different proteins may be expressed at different times during your life? TRUE.
These have 2 epsilon and 2 zeta subunits. Embryonic hemoglobin
Fetal hemoglobin has what kind and how many subunits? 2 alpha and 2 gamma subunits.
What subunits carry 20-30% more oxygen than maternal hemoglobin? Alpha and gamma subunits.
These have 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits? Adult hemoglobin.
What disease has messed up beta subunits? Sickle cell anemia.
T or F. Scientists are working on trying to turn off the fetal hemoglobin genes. FALSE (they are working to try to turn them back on.)
T or F. Different proteins may be expressed differently in one organ? TRUE
How many different proteins are in blood plasma? 40,000 (some are normally expressed , some are only expressed when you are sick).
What are the four proteins made in the pancreas? 1. insulin, 2. glucagon, 3. somatostatin, 4. amylase.
Insulin (lowers blood glucose levels) is formed by what cells in the pancreas? Beta cells.
Diabetes mellitus is a result of ... too little insulin.
Describe Type I diabetics? don't make any insulin at all; juvenile onset diabetes; NEEDS INSULIN SHOTS.
Describe Type II diabetics? don't make enough insulin for all the glucose they are eating; adult onset diabetes; needs to cut back on sugar.
T or F. Scientists are trying to find the right stem cells and growth factors to regrow more BETA cells of the pancreas? TRUE.
What does glucagon do and from what cells does it come from in the pancreas? It raises blood glucose levels; Alpha cells.
This breaks down starch to maltose; formed by the acinar cells in the pancreas? Pancreatic amylase
What is proteomics? studies all the proteins made in a cell, tissue, gland, organ, or entire body.
Explain Chromatin remodeling? adds or removes organic chemical group to or from histones.
DNA methylation? attachment of methyl groups (-CH3) to DNA. (Highly methylated DNA is inactive; Barr bodies are highly methylated.)
Alpha thalassemia? too little DNA methylation---causes symptoms of anemia and mental retardation.
Histone acetylation? attachment of acetyl )-CH3CO2) to histones; highly acetylated histones promotes transcription of DNA and make active genes; hemoglobin genes are highly acetylated.
This disease is caused by failure to remove acetyl group from histones. DLX5 is over expressed in brain and causes repetitive movements, irregular breathing, seizures, loss of motor control. Rett syndrome.
Adding phosphate group turns on ____________? Transcription.
What is RNA interference? transcribing both strands of DNA leads to double stranded RNA which marks regular RNA for destruction.
T or F. Scientists have been able to use RNA interference to destroy a particular RNA? TRUE.
Our 20,500 genes encode for how many proteins? 200,000 proteins.
What are the ways to make many proteins from few genes? 1. Alternative RNA splicing, 2. Intron, 3. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: One gene may be split in half to form 2 proteins.
Describe Alternative RNA splicing? as introns are spliced out of an RNA transcript, you can make different mRNA and hence different proteins.
Antibodies are made from different combinations of about _______ exons? 300 exons
T or F. One particular gene Bcl-x regulates cell death (apoptosis) and has two alternative splicings. TRUE.
T or F. Introns may contain genes? TRUE.
Prostate cancer has _____ exons and _____introns; one version of the protein consists of the 1st exon with the 4th exon. 5 exons, 4 introns
What is a neurofibromin? inside of an intron for the main protein gene is the instructions for 3 different genes.
What is Dentinogenesis imperfecta? one gene makes 2 proteins; DSPP=DPP + DSP
What percentage of the human genome codes for proteins? 1.5%
What are noncoding RNAs? tRNA and rRNA that don't code for genes.
This presents correct amino acid to ribosome and makes up .1% of the human genome? tRNA
What does rRNA do? It binds amino acid to the protein chain.
What are Pseudogenes? are very similar to real genes, but do not yield functional proteins.
What is gene amplification? selective amplification of certain genes; often genes that are used frequently; rRNA genes.
Who discovered transposons? When? Barbara McClintock in 1940s
What do you call stretches of DNA that can move within the genome; LINEs, SINEs? Transposons.
What are LINEs (Long Interspersed Elements)? 6,000 bases long before trimmed to 900 bases and reinserted into a chromosome.
What are SINEs (Short Interspersed Elements)? 100-500 bases that are reinserted into a chromosome; Alu element.
What is Alu element? 300 base pairs of DNA that moves within the genome; 300,000-500,000 copies.
What is the name of the spot where the sister chromatids join together; where spindle fibers attach? Centromere.
What is a telomere? region at the end of chromosomes; TTAGGG repeat; gets shorter with each round of replication.
What kind of telomeres are associated with aging? Short.
What is minisatellite DNA? Repeated 100-100,000 times.
What is microsatellite DNA? repeated 10-100 times.
Fragile X Syndrome (re: satellite info) CGG microsatellite becomes minisatellite.
Huntington's Disease (re: satellite info) CAG microsatellite becomes minisatellite.
Created by: mamcdonald
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