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World Civ StudyGuide

Kingdom of Ghana first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa, between sahara and the headwaters of Senegal and the niger rivers.
Kingdom of Kongo a large kingdom in the western part of central Africa, name from the founders called Kikongo
Trans-saharan trade slave trade, small-scale trade that developed in the 12th century, exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahrar for sale mostlyy as household servants in Islamic Norht Africa
Mali Empire Capital Timbuktu, center of Islamic learning. trading empire that flourished in western africa from the 13th to the 16th century
Mansa Musa One of africa's richest kingdoms, he built the great mosques at timbuktu, he was mostly remembered by his pilgramage to Mecca
Swahili Coast Society region where Africans and Arabs mixed to create a unique identity from the 8th century called swahili culture. name nmeans people of the coast
Great Zimbabwe a medieval African city known for its large circular wall and tower, part of a wealthy african trading empire that controlled much of East African coast
Kinship group of people related by blood or marriage
African Religion set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic groups. oral rath than scriptural, supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dea, use of magic and tradtional African medicine
Bantu Migration large population movement over time from southern west africa to central, eastern, and southern africa
Axum an acient town in north ethiopia in the tigre region, capital of the aksumite empire
imperialism expansion through diplomacy or military force
monotheism only on God
polytheism many gods
mandate of heaven approval of gods to rule over people
romulus & remus roman legend, twin brothers who were raised by a she-wolf and founde d the city of Rome
patrician patres = fathers, families provided the empire's political, religious, and military leadership. known as wealthy landowners from old families
Etruscans Etruscan, member of an ancient people of Etruria, Italy, between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines,
Roman Republic period in which the city state of rome existed as a republican government, earliest examples of representative democracy
Tribunes am elected official in ancient rome, rank below legate and above centurion
twelve tables a set of laws inscrbed on 12 bronze tablets created in ancient Rome, laws passed by government and written down
Carthage new city most powerful city in the region because of its proximity to trade routes and its impressive harbor on the mediterranean
Punic Wars series of three wars between the roman republic and carthaginian empire, resulting in the destruction of carthage, enslavement of its population and the roman hegemony over the western mediatarranean
Julius Caesar a roman general and politician who named himself dictator of the roman empire,
Augustus Caesar one of ancient romes most successful leaders who led the transformation of rome from a republic to an empire
Pax Romana unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the empire, means roman peace
gladiators professional combatant in ancient rome, performed etruscan funerals
spartacus roman slave and gladiator who led a revolt against rome, turned into the third servile war
jesus of nazareth romans believed this man to be a troublemaker
paul of tarsus one of the leaders of the first generation of Christians, often considered to be th most importatn person after Jesus in the history of Christianity, preached in rome
islam meaning submission to the will of God, folloers named Muslims, monotheistic
Allah the one and only god of Islam
Quran the sacred scriptures of Islam, recitation, inspired by the angel gabriel to muhammed
Battle of Badr first- large scale confrontation between muslims nad the quraysh, 6 year battle until the quraysh surrended
Umayyad Caliphate the first muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the caliphate
Muhammad founder of islam and the proclaimer of the Quran, islam sacred scripture
Mecca holiest of muslim cities, place of founder muhammad, religious centre that muslims turn five times daily in prayer
Five Pillars of Islam 1. the declaration of faith 2. prayer 3. alms-giving 4. fasting 5. pilgrimage, basic norms of islamic practice
Shia & Sunni shia menas paritsans of ali, sunnis meaning followers of the sunna or the way
pastoral nomad a way of life of peoples who do not live continually in the same place, moving cyclically or periodically
yurts a protable, circular dwelling made of a lattice of flexible poles and covered in felt or other fabric
animism belief in innumerable spiritual beings concerned with human affairs and capable of helping or harming human interests
ancestral worship rituals designed to commemorate and venerate the spirits of one's deceased forebears
shamanism an animistic relgion of northern asia having the belief that hte meditation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Etugen represented fertility, earth mother goddess of the mongols
tengri the chief god who created all things, religon of the mongols
mongol military tactics combination of masterful training with excellent communication and discipline in the chaos of combat, psychological warfare too
chinngis kahn founder of the mongol empire, universal ruler, unifying the mongol tribes
legacy of the mongol empire the silk road and its history of trade, cultural development, potential for a modern era characterized by the unity of disparate peoples, and relative peace
golden horde sophisticated and administratively comple empire, golden camp
yuan dynasty dynasty established by mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of china fron the early 13th century
ogodei son and successor of the mongol ruler genghis khan
khanate the state of jurisdiction of a khan
Khubilai Khan fifth emperor, conquered china, developed dual principle political theory, made paper monet the sole medium of exchange
karakorum a ruined city in mongolia. destroyed by Kublai khan when his brother rebelled against him, king moved his capital to Peking today's beijing
Ilkhanate viceroy or ruler of a pacified area
Jin dynasty wade giles romantization Chin, chinese dynasty that comprises two distince phases, the Xi Jin, and the Dong Jin
Byzantine Empire An empire, centered at Constantinople, that began as the eastern portion of the Roman Empire; it included parts of Europe and western Asia.
Charlemagne Charlemagne was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. In 771, Charlemagne became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany
Constantinople Constantinople developed into a thriving port thanks to its prime geographic location between Europe and Asia and its natural harbor
Constantine Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople
Franks Frank, member of a Germanic-speaking people who invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
Justinian Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain
Papacy the office held by the Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church.
schism those groups that broke with the church and established rival churches. The term originally referred to those divisions that were caused by disagreement over something other than basic doctrine
Theme system A new military system created during the Heraclian Dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, in which land was granted to farmers who, in return, would provide the empire with loyal soldiers.
Feudalism the system in 10th-13th century European medieval societies where a social hierarchy was established based on local administrative control and the distribution of land into units (fiefs).
Guilds associations of craftsmen and merchants formed to promote the economic interests of their members as well as to provide protection and mutual aid.
Serfdom condition in medieval Europe in which a tenant farmer was bound to a hereditary plot of land and to the will of his landlord.
Kings a supreme ruler, sovereign over a nation or a territory, of higher rank than any other secular ruler except an emperor, to whom a king may be subject.
Nobles/Barons title of nobility, ranking below a viscount (or below a count in countries without viscounts). In the feudal system of Europe, a baron was a “man” who pledged his loyalty and service to his superior in return for land that he could pass to his heirs
Knights a warrior of olden times who fought on horseback, served a king, held a special military rank, and swore to behave in a noble way
Monasteries a building, or buildings, where people lived and worshiped, devoting their time and life to God.
Monks (hierarchy) a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks
Convents consisting of nuns belonging to a particular order
Chivalry a code of honor that emphasized bravery, loyalty, and generosity for knights at war in the 11th and 12th centuries.
knighthood a title that is given to a man by a British king or queen for his achievements or his service to his country
Castles medieval stronghold, generally the residence of the king or lord of the territory in which it stands.
Holy Roman Empire ruled over much of western and central Europe from the 9th century to the 19th century. It envisioned itself as a dominion for Christendom continuing in the tradition of the ancient Roman Empire and was characterized by strong papal authority.
Created by: dre.curry
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