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Block6 ETOH

Block 6 ETOH - the fourth food group

QuestionAnswer
What is the fourth food group? Ethanol
What is the first enzyme to act on EtOH? Alcohol dehydrogenase breaks it into acetaldehyde
What enzyme works on acetaldehyde? acetaldehyde broken to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase
Where is ethanol metabolized? the liver
What builds up with excessive EtOH metabolism? Problem? NADH - which shifts the biosynthetic pathways toward lactate/lactic acid production and away from pyruvate/glucose production
What is the real toxin in ETOH metabolism? cheap wine...or acetaldehyde
What is the second route of ethanol oxidation? microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)
What is the principle enzyme used in MEOS? What does it use as an electron donor and acceptor? cytochrome P450 uses NADPH as electron donor and O2 as acceptor
How many kilocalories per gram are in ethanol 7 Kcal/gram
What are the toxic effects of alcohol metabolism? 1. acute effects of NADH/NAD+ shift biosynthetic pathways 2. wake up next to a fat girl 3. toxic effects of acetaldehyde on liver
What is the fast step in EtOH metabolism? EtOH + NAD+ catalyzed by alchol dehydrogenase (ADH) creates acetaldehyde and NADH
What is the Slow or second step? What will inhibit this step? Acetaldehyde + NAD+ catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate + NADH inhibited by Disulfiram
Three conditions caused by acute alcoholism? hypoglycemia, lactate acidosis, hyperurcemia
If a fasting person drinks heavily, what possible biosynthetic pathways are altered? limited gluconeogenesis causes hypoglycemia lacticacidemia from excess NADH left shifting pathway lactate inhibits excretion of uric acid = hyperuricemia
What are two necessary precursors for gluconeogenesis? alanine and glycerol
What makes acetaldehyde so dangerous to the internal environment? It binds to macromolecules containing NH2, thiols etc.. to form adducts. Adducts destroy the original activity of the macromolecule
Why is protein synthesis and secretion damaged by chronic alcoholism? adduct formation with tubulin(microtubules) and amino acids impairs it.
Why is adduct formation with glutathione so damaging? Glutathione scavenges free radicals. When mitochondria are damaged, the ROS become worse
What makes alcoholics pack on the pounds? damaged mitochondria uncouple oxidative phosphorylation - Fatty acid oxidation decreases, only fatty acid synthesis occurs
What is seen with alcohol damage to the brain? Ataxia cognitive damage nystagmus
What is seen in the liver? accumulationof collagen-type layers, disappearance of elastic fibers, parenchymal damage Release of AST/ALT
What vitamin is most affected by alcohol? Why? Thiamine (B1) absorption in the GI tract is inhibited
Excess acetate from acetaldehyde is converted to what? What happens with increase in this compound? Acetyl-CoA increase beyond normal causes fatty acid synthesis fatty livers increase in VLDL
Created by: El Diablo
 

 



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