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UTSW Cell Bio 2

What are the 7 air-conducting components of the respiratory system? Nasal Cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & bronchioles
What 3 components of the respiratory system participate in gas exchange? alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
Which part of the respiratory system is lined with stratified squamous epithelial cells? vocal cords
What part of the respiratory system is lined with pseudo-stratified ciliated epithelium? nasal cavity (except air entrance), pharynx & larynx (except vocal cords), trachea
What part of the respiratory system is lined with cuboidal epithelium? bronchioles (incl. terminal)
What part of the respiratory system is lined with columnar epithelium? primary bronchi
Which part of the respiratory system is lined with squamous epithelial cells? nasal cavity (air enters), alveoli
How does the organization of cartilage change from trachea to bronchi? Trachea cartilage is c-chaped (12-20) while bronchi cartilage are islands or plates
How does the organization of cartilage change from bronchi to bronchioles? Bronchi have cartilage plates & bronchioles don't have cartilage at all
What are 3 defining characteristics of type II respiratory system cells? frothy cytoplasm (vacuolated), pyramidal, sit in corner of alveoli, store surfactant in lamellar bodies
What does the thinnest part of the alveolus consist of? surfactant, Type I cell + basal lamina, enothelial cell + basal lamina
Does diameter increase as air flows down air-conducting portion of respiratory system? yes
Does air flow increase as it moves down the conductin portion of the respiratory system? no
What lines the outer surface of the lung (incl. cell type)? visceral pleura (mesothelial cells)
What is the purpose of the conchae in the nasal cavity? warms air & precipates particulates in air by inc. S.A. & creating air eddies
What are the 2 types of nasal cavity epithelium? squamous & pseudo-stratified ciliated (+goblet cells)
What covers the upper 1/3 to 2/3 of nasal cavity? olfactory sensing system
What 3 cell types make up the nasal cavity modified ciliated epithelium? supporting/sustentacular cells, olfactory bulb cells, basal cells
What is on the dendritic (apical) surface of olfactory bulb cells? 2 modified cilia extending for microns
What does the basal surface of the olfactory bulb cell form? an axon that projects thru connective tissue to form olfactory nerve
What type of receptors do olfactory bulb cilia contain? olfactory receptors that are G-protein coupled
Which of the nasal cavity epithelium cell types are progenitor cells? Basal cells of the olfactory sensing system
What type of glands secrete coating apically in the nasal cavity? serous (in lamina propria)
Why does the epithelial cell type change in the vocal cords? high rate of air flow differentiates ciliated cells to non-keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium
Where in the respiratory system is true stratified ciliated epithelium seen? vocal cords
What type of muscle is in the vocal cords? skeletal
What makes up the posterior of the trachea? smooth muscle & fibroelastic tissue
What is the approx. diameter & length of the trachea? 2.5 cm wide & 10 cm long
What are the 4 layers of the trachea? mucosa (epithelium & lamina propria), submucosa, cartilage (or musccle bridge), adventitia
What separates the lamina propria & submucosa in the trachea? elastic fibers
What type of glands are in the trachea submucosa? mixed with predominantly mucus acini(esp. in muscle bridge)
Which direction do trachea cilia beat towards? larynx
Why does the trachea have goblet cells? to make mucus for protection & to expel particulates
What type of trachea cell acts as a receptor & connects to sympathetic afferent nerve? brush cell
What is the enteroendocrine cell in the trachea called? small granule cell
What is the progenitor cell in the trachea? basal
What defines the dividing line between the mucosa & submucosa in the trachea? elastic membrane
What is unusual about the trachea basement membrane? it's very thick
What is common in the basement membrane & lamina propria of the trachea? nodular lymphatic tissue
What are the first branches off the trachea? left & right primary bronchi
Why are there fewer bronchial branches on the left? the heart takes up space
What is the smalled unit in a respiratory lobule? acinus
What does a respiratory acinus consist of? single alveolar duct & associated alveoli
What are the 4 branches of the bronchial tree? primary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles
Which branches of the bronchial tree have abundant smooth muscle? primary bronchi & bronchioles
Which branch of the bronchial tree has submucosal glands? primary bronchi
How is smooth muscle organized in the primary bronchi? spiral bands running in oppposite directions
Which part of the bronchial tree is a prime target for respiratory disorders? primary bronchi smooth muscle b/c it keeps airway open
At which part of the bronchial tree do Clara cells appear? bronchioles
Where in the bronchial tree is there a transition in epithelium incl. fluid producing cells? bronchioles (reduction in fluid producing cells)
Where in the bronchial tree does smooth muscle become thinner? terminal bronchioles
Which 2 parts of the respiratory system have Clara cells? bronchioles & terminal bronchioles
Where in the respiratory system does the lumen become irregular? terminal bronchioles
Where in the bronchial tree do goblet cells disappear? terminal bronchioles
What is the distinguishing feature of respiratory bronchioles? thin-walled outpocketings (alveoli)
What separates alveoli? interalveolar septum
Where are alveolar capillaries located? very thin connective tissue
What are the 6 types of alveolar cells? Type I, Type II, smooth muscle, endothelial, fibroblasts, macrophages
What are 3 characteristics of alveolar Type I cells? squamous epithelial, thin nucleus, cytoplasm difficult to see, specializef for air conduction btwn alveolus & blood
What is surfactant made of? lipoprotein mix with much dipalmitoyl lecithin
What is the purpose of Clara cells? surfactant production
Where is surfactant stored? Lamellar bodies in type II cells
What are the liver's 6 main functions? produces bile, takes in products of digestion, clearing house for RBCs, detox, regulates blood glucose, produces serum albumin & blood clotting factors
What are the liver parenchymal cells called? hepatocytes
What is the primary source of blood to the liver? hepatic portal vein (hepatic artery is 2nd)
Which hepatocyte functions are endocrine? release of albumin, glucose, & clotting proteins (fibrinogen, prothrombin) into blood
Which hepatocyte functions are exocrine? release of bile into ducts (via canaliculi)
How does the hepatocyte structure allow for endo & exocrine function? polarization of endo & exo function on different cell sides, arranged in plates (blood bath outside, bile canaliculi at cell-cell interactions)
What is the liver capsule made of? dense connective tissue (covered by mesothelial cells)
What makes up the stucture of the liver blood supply? portal vein (75%), hepatic artery (25%), sinusoids, central vein
What is the simplest functional unit of the liver? lobule
What is at the center of a liver lobule? central vein
What type of epithelium lines the liver lobule central vein? simple squamous
What radiates from the liver lobule central vein? plates of hepatocytes
What defines the edge of classic lobule? portal triad (portal veins, hepatic arteries, bile ducts)
Which way does blood flow in the liver lobule? toward the central vein
Which way does bile flow in the liver lobule? toward portal triads
Where in the liver lobule is blood least oxgenated & contains highest concentration of hepatocyte secretions? closest to the central vein
What type of epithelial cells line bile ducts in portal triads? cholangiocytes
What is another name for portal triad? portal radical
What besides portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct is in a portal triad? lymphatic vessels, connective tissue, nerve
What type of endothelium lines liver sinusoids? thin discontinuous & fenestrated (does not allow RBCs thru thus creating lymph)
What is the area between the thin veil of endothelial cytoplasm & a hepatocyte called? Space of Disse
Where is 50% of the heart's lymph produced? Space of Disse
What is in the Space of Disse? connective tissue & microvilli of hepatocytes
What highly phagocytic cells stretch across the liver sinusoid lumen? Kupffner
What is the function of Kupffer cells? ingest particulate material (e.g. old RBS, bacteria) in liver sinusoids
What is the major site of vitamin A storage? Hepatic stellate cells
Where are hepatic stellate cells located? Space of Disse
Which cells can contribute to liver fibrosis & how? Hepatic stellate cells; by producing Type I collagen
Where does detox occur in the liver? smooth ER of hepatocytes
What cell type aids in the removal of bilirubin? hepatocyte
How long does human liver regeneration take after a partial hepatectomy? 2-3 months
What is the mechanism for liver regeneration? compensatory hyperplasia (remain lobes inc. via cell proliferation)
What 2 cell types can proliferate to form hepatocytes? hepatocytes & liver stem cells
Where do liver endothelial & Kupffer cells originate? bone marrow
What is the order of blood flow in the liver from the central vein? hepatic vein, vena cava, heart
What is the order of bile flow? canaliculi, bile duct, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, gall bladder, cystic duct, common bile duct, ampulla of Vater, duodenum
What happens to bile flow if the sphincter of Oddi around the ampulla is closed? bile is forced back up the common bile duct into the cystic duct then into the gall bladder
Where is bile stored & concentrated? gall bladder
What is pumped out of the basal end of gall bladder epithelial cells to help concentrate bile? Na+
How does the gall bladder accomodate bile storage? the wall contains folds
What are the 3 layers of the gall bladder wall? smooth muscle, loose connective tissue, outer serosal layer
What do the plasma cells in the gall bladder wall connective tissue secrete? IgA antibodies
Which has more smooth muscle: hepatic or cystic duct? cystic duct
What feature of the cystic duct helps regulate flow into & out of the gall bladder? spiral valves
What are the 2 primary functions of the pancreas? secretion of digestive enzymes (acinar cells - exocrine) & Release of glucose regulating hormones (islets of Langerhans - endocrine)
What are the histologically distinct areas of the pancreas? acinar cells & islets of Langerhans
What do the pancreatic acinar cells secrete? hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, lipases, nucleases, amylases, etc)
What is the first cell of the intercalated pancreatic duct called? centroacinar
What are the ducts leading from the pancreatic acinus called? intercalated
What is the order of pancreatic enzyme flow? acinus lumen, intercalated duct, larger collecting ducts in/btwn lobules, pancreatic duct
What are the 3 major salivary glands? parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What are the 2 types of salivary secretory cells? mucous & serous
What do salivary glands secrete? IgA, water, electrolytes, digestive enzymes
What salivary secretory cells have nuclei flat against the base? mucous (frothy too)
What salivary secretory cells have intensely staining secretory granules? serous
What are mixed acini? contain both serous & mucous cells
What are serous demilunes? serous cells near edge of salivary mixed acinus forming a crescent
What collects & modifies fluid from salivary intercalated ducts? striated ducts
What makes striated ducts appear striated? basal ends are highly infolded with lots of mitochondria (also inc. S.A. & facilitates fluid mod)
What cell is stimulated neuronally to contract & thus promote acinus secretion? myoepithelial
Where are myoepithelial cells located? above the basement membrane in direct contact with acinar cells
What type of visual system do humans have? stereoscopic
What range of wavelengths can the human eye detect? 400 nm (blue) to 700 nm (red)
What are the 3 layers of the wall of the eye (from outside in)? corneoscleral, choroid (uvea), retina
What type of connective tissue makes up the sclera? dense
What is the most refractile part of the eye? cornea
What does most of the focusing of images on the retina? cornea
What contains most of the eye's vasculature? choroid
What part of the eye wall is considered to be part of the brain/CNS? retina
Where are photosensitive neurons located in the eye? retina
What are the 3 major structures of the eye that light passes through? cornea, lens, & retina
What are the 4 functions of the cornea? protection, structural support, filtration of undesirable wavelengths, focus image on retina
What are the 5 layers of the cornea? epithelium, bowman's membrane, stroma, descemet's membrane, corneal endothelium
What are 3 notable properties of the cornea? no blood vessels/pigments, inflammation from limbus, lots of free nerve endings
How does corneal epithelium differ from corneal endothelium? Both are squamous, but epithelium is stratified & endothelium is simple
What type of junctions connect cells in the corneal endothelium? tight (direct contact with aqueous humor)
What forms Bowman's membrane? randomly arranged collagen fibrils formed by stroma cells
What occupies most of the thickness of the cornea? stroma
How are corneal stroma cells organized? alternating layers of keratocytes (mod. fibroblasts) & orthogonally arrayed collagen fibrils
What is corneal stroma continuous with? sclera
What is a key property of stroma for corneal function? it is transparent & avascular connective tissue
Whatis the basal lamina of the corneal endothelium called? descemet's membrane (collagen fibrils)
What is the purpose of descemet's membrane? acts as barrier to diffusion of macromolecules between stroma & anterior chamber of eye
What is myopia (near-sightedness) caused by? cornea too far from retina
What causes astigmatism? aspherical cornea can't focus light sharply on retina
What causes hyperopia (far-sightedness)? cornea to near retina
What are 4 types of refractive corenal surgery? radial keratotomy, astigmatic keratotomy, photorefractive kerotomy, laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis
Which 2 surgeries can correct all 3 common vision defects? PRK & LASIK
What is the key difference between PRK & LASIK? PRK corrects by removing part o the corneal epithelium while LASIK corrects by removing part of the stroma
What does RK correct? myopia
Where are incisions made for RK & for AK? RK: near corneal center; AK: steepest part of cornea
What marks the limbus region of the eye? disappearance of Bowman's membrane & presccence of vasculature in stroma at the junction of sclera & cornea
How does conjunctiva epithelium differ from that of cornea or limbus? prescence of goblet cells
What region is covered by conjunctiva? from inner surface of eyelids to outside edge of cornea
What is the function of the lens? aid in focusing of nearby objects on retina
What is the lens capsule? basal lamina of Type 4 collagen
What completely surrounds the lens? the capsule
What is the lens capsule composed of? collagen fibrils & proteoglycans
Where are cuboidal cells located on the lens? anterior surface
What supports the lens? zonules
What are zonules made of? elastic microfibril/fibrillin
What is found throughout the body of the lens? flattened lens fibers
What type of junction occurs between lens fiber cells? gap
What is unique about the lens fiber cells? cell extends entire width of lens, postmitotic, anuclear
What are 2 pathologies of the lens? presbyopia (loss of len elasticity) & cataracts (loss of lens transparency)
What are the 3 functions of the retina? photoreception of images, transmission of images to brain, prevent backscatter of light
What are the 9 major layers of the retina? pigmented epithelium (next to choroid), photoreceptor layer (rod & cones), outer limiting membrane, outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform laye, ganglion cell layer, nerve fiber layer
What part of the retina has a layer of tight junctions between photoreceptor neurons & Muller glial cells? outer limiting membrane
What retinal layer contains cell bodies & nuclei of photoreceptor neurons? outer nuclear layer
What retinal layer contains axons of photoreceptor cells along with processes of bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells? outer plexiform layer
What retinal layer contains cells bodies of bipolar, horizontal, & amacrine cells? inner nuclear layer
What retinal layer contains dendrites of ganglion cells along with processes of bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells? inner plexiform layer
What retinal layer contains ganglion cell neuron bodies & axons? ganglion cell layer
Where do ganglion cell axons exit the eye? optic nerve
What retinal layer contains only axons of the ganglion cells? innermost (nerve fiber) layer
What non-neuronal cells prvent backscattering of light & maintain functionality of photoreceptor cells? pigmented epithelium
What vitamin deficiency can lead to blindness? Vitamin A
Which photoreceptor is for vision in low light? rods
Which photoreceptor is not present on the fovea? rods
What is the light sensitive pigment for rods? rhodopsin
What is the light-sensitive co-factor for opsin? 11-cis-retinal (derived from Vit A)
What type of receptors are rhodopsins? G-protein-coupled
Where are cones most abundant in the eye? fovea
What is the purpose of cones? color vision
What is iodopsin? the light sensitive pigment for cones
How many varieties of iodopsin are there? 3 (for red, blue, and green)
What is the macula lutea? yellow pigmented zone surrounding fovea
Where is visual acuity greatest in the eye? fovea
Where is the highest density of photoreceptors in the eye? fovea (also devoid of blood vessels)
What creates the eye's "blind spot" optic disc - where optic nerve joins the retina
What are the 3 key parts of the uvea/choroid? iris, ciliary body, outflow tract
Which muscles are arranged radially in the iris? dilator pupillae muscles
Which muscles are arranged circumferentially near the pupil? contrictor pupillae muscles
What is the layer of blue pigmented cells that blocks light in the iris called? posterior epithelium
What regulates the amount of light to the retina? iris
What epithelial layer helps form the dilator pupillae muscles? anterior pigment myo-epithelial layer (also has melanin)
What determines eye color? melanocytes in the iris' highly vascularized stroma which also has fibroblasts
Is the anterior surface of the iris lined with epithelial cells? no
What type of muscle is in the inner wall of the ciliary body? smooth
What is the structure of the ciliary body? disk-shaped, hollow core lined by processes
How many layers of epithelial cells are in the ciliary body & how are they arranged? 2 with apical ends facing each other
Which of the ciliary body epithelial layers is not pigmented? inner layer
Which ciliary epithelial layer is pigmented & continuous with the pigmented epithelial cells of the iris? outer layer
Is ciliary body stroma highly vascularized? yes
How do the circumferential ciliary muscles allow the lens to focus on nearby objects? by contracting to loosen tension on the zonules holding the lens, thus allowing the lens to become thicker
What produces aqueous humor? ciliary processes (inner layer of epithelium)
How does the composition of aqueous humor relate to that of plasma? it is plasma derived but with more pyruvic & lactic acids
Why is it necessary for aqueous humor to be pumped into the posterior chamber? because fluid pressure in the ciliary processes is 13 mmHg versus 20 mm Hg in the posterior/anterior chamber
What blocks stray light in the ciliary body? pigmented region
How does aqueous humor exit the anteroir chamber? through the trabecular meshwork
Where is the trabecular meshwork located? encircles the eye near the junction of iris & limbus
What lines the luminal space of the trabecular meshwork? leaky epithelium
What is the Canal of Schlemm? a vein which leads the aqueous humor from the trabecular meshwork to the episcleral veins & general circulation
What causes glaucoma? build of fluid pressure in the eye due to inbalance of aqueous humor outflow
What does the kidney cortex consist of? renal corpuscles (granular), convoluted & straight tubules, collecting tubules, vascular supply
What are medullary rays? aggregates of straight & straight collecting tubules that create striations from the cortex to the medulla
What does the kidney medulla consist of? renal pyramids & renal columns
What separates the pyramids of the kidney medulla? cortical or renal columns of Bertin
How many lobes to human kidneys have? 6-12
What makes up a kidney lobe? renal pyramid, cortical region above it, 1/2 of each of the cortical coumns beside it
What is the functional filtration unit of the kidney? nephron
What are the 9 components of the nephron in order of filtration? renal corpuscle (incl glomerulus/Bowman's capsule), proximal convoluted tubule, proximal straight tubule, descending thin limb, ascending thin limb, thick ascending limb (distal straight tube), macula densa, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule
Where is the macula densa located? adjacent to the vascular pole of the glomerulus, last section of thick ascending limb
Which nephrons are most important in the concentration of urine? juxtamedullary nephrons
Where are juxtamedullary nephrons' renal corpuscles located? near the inner part of the cortex with long loops of henle running deep in the medulla
Where are the cortical/subcapsular nephrons located? renal corpuscles located in outer part of cortex with short loops of henle that just enter the medulla
Which nephrons filter but don't concentrate urine? cortical/subcapsular nephrons
Where does filtration occur in the kidney? renal corpuscle/glomerulus
What are the 4 components of the renal corpuscle? glomerulus, afferent & efferent arterioles, and Bowman's capsule
What is the region of the renal corpuscle were arterioles enter & exit called? vascular pole
What makes up Bowman's capsule? the epithelial cells that cover the glomerular capillaries & line the wall of the renal corpuscle
What are the squamous cells lining the renal corpuscle called? parietal layer
What are the specialized cells covering the glomerular capillaries called? visceral layer/podocytes
What prevents blood cells from entering glomerulus filtrate? fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries
What acts as a physical barrier & ion selective filter in the glomerulus? glomerular basement membrane
What does the glomerular basement membrane (basal lamina) represent? a fusion of the endothelial basement membrane & the basement membrane of the podocytes
What are the 3 layers of the glomerular basement membrane from capillary endothelium out? lamina lucida interna, lamina densa, lamina lucida externa
Which layer of the glomerular basement membrane is rich in polyanions that act to prevent loss of neg. charged molecules from blood? lamina lucida interna
What is the fused portion of the glomerular basement membrane called? lamina densa
Which glomerular basement membrane layer prevets loss of proteins > 70 kd & is made of Type 4 collagen? lamina densa
Which layer of the glomerular basement membrane prevents neg. charged molecules (e.g. albumin) from entering filtrate? lamina lucida externa
What are podocyte processes called? pedicels
What part of podocytes are in contact with the glomerular basement membrane? pedicels
What acts as the final filtration barrier in a glomerulus? the gaps between pedicels called filtration slits
What is the mesangium made up of? mesangial cells & mesangial extracellular matrix
What is the purpose of mesangial cells? phagocytosis of trapped residues & aggregate proteins from b.m., support for podocytes & the vascular pole
Where is the mesangium located? inside the glomerular basement membrane
What is the most common source of kidney disease? glomerular disorders
What is proteinuria? prescence of protein in urine due to build up of anti-bodies in the glomerular filtration apparatus leading to partial breakdown
Which tubule reabsorbs 65% of primary filtrate? proximal tubules
How are small proteins reabsorbed in the proximal tubule? endocytosis
What aspects of the proximal tubule cell facilitate reabsorption? brush border (inc. SA), infolding of basal processes, basal striations (elongated mitochondria)
Where do basal striations start to decrease in the proximal tubule? proximal straight tubules
What are other names for the proximal straight tubule? beginning of loops of henle/thick descending loop of henle
What part of the loop of henle is permeable to water? descending part
What type of epithelium is in the thin limb of henle's loop? simple squamous
What helps create & maintain the high osmolarity in the medullary interstitium? juxtamedullary nephron loops of henle
Where in the loop of henle does the filtrate become hypertonic? thin descending limb
What tubules are inpermeable to water in henle's loop? ascending (thick & thin) limbs
Where in the loop of henle does the filtrate become hypotonic? thin ascending limb (passive diffusion of salts) & thick ascending limb (active transport of salt)
What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus? afferent & efferent arterioles, macula densa, juxtagomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangial cells
Where is the macula densa located? the last section of the thick ascending limb where it returns to the glomerulus
What does the macula densa look like? epithelial cells that thicken & become taller with more prominent nuclei than surrounding cells
What does the macula densa regulate? senses the osmolarity of the filtrate & controls the release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells
What is another name for juxtaglomerular cells? granular cells
What are juxtaglomerular cells? modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole that regulate blood pressure & filtrate osmolarity by secreting renin (in granules - PAS stain)
What type of epithelium lines the distal convoluted tubule? simple cuboidal
Why is does the DCT lack a brush border? because most pumping done in proximal tubule, so less SA required
What steroid controls sodium reabsorption in the DCT? aldosterone (increases Na reabsorption)
What is renovascular hypertension? whn vascular disease decreases blood flow to kidney activating JG cells to increase renin & elevate BP
Where are collecting tubules found? medullary ray
Where are collecting ducts (ducts of Bellini) found? medulla
What transports urine to the minor calyx? collecting ducts
What are the 2 key functions of collecting tubules & ducts? create high osmolarity in inner medullary region by contirbuting urea & control conc. of urine
What hormone controls the collecting duct/tubule epithelium permeability to water? ADH/AVP (argine vasopressin)
What secretes ADH? posterior pituitary
What is the production of large amounts of hypotonic urine associated with? diabetes insipidus, from lack of ADH
What are the 2 types of efferent arterioles? those draining cortical nephrons & those draining glomeruli of juxtamedullary nephrons
What are the peritubular capillaries that descend into the mdeulla called? vasa recta
What do the peritubular capillaries in the cortex surround? uriniferous tubules
What do efferent arterioles from the cortical glomeruli lead into? peritubular capillary network
What is the minor calyx part of? papilla (funnel shaped chamber)
What is the arrangement of muscle layers in the ureter? inner longitudinal, outer circular (w/another longitudinal outside in some areas)
What parts of the urinary system have transitional epithelium? calyces, pelvis, ureter, and bladder
How many openings in the bladder? 2 for ureters, 1 for urethra
What are the layers of the bladder? epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle, (outer circ., inner long.)
What is the main regulator of most endocrine glands? hypothalamus
Where is the hypothalamus? immed. above pituitary in brain
What is the developmental origin of the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)? Rathke's pouch
What are the 3 parts of the anterior pituitary? pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis
What does the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) arise from embryonically? infundibulum
What are the components of the posterior pituitary? pars nervosa (nerve endings) & infundibulum (axons)
What produces alpha-MSG during fetal development? pars intermedia
Where are hyposphyseal portal veins? pars tuberalis (also has chromophils & chromophobes)
What type of cells are in the pars distalis? chromophils (basophils & acidophils) - primary hormone secreting cells, chromophobes
What are the 2 acidophilic cell types in the anterior pituitary? somatotropes & mammotropes/lactotrophs
What are the 3 basophilic cell types in the anterior pituitary? corticotropes, gonadotropes, thyrotropes
What cell type secretes growth hormone? somototropes
What is the target tissue for somatotropes? liver to produce IGF-I
What produces ACTH (adrenocorticotropin)? corticotropes to reg. adrenal cortisol prod.
What produces FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) & LH (luteinizing hormone)? gonadotropes
What produces TSH? thyrotropes (reg. thyroid)
How does the hypothalamus control the pituitary? via hypophyseal blood supply
Does most the anterior lobe of hypophysis have direct arterial supply? no
What do the superior hypophyseal arteries supply? pars tuberalis, median eminence, and infundibular stem
What connects the hypothalamus & pituitary (posterior)? pituitary stalk
What makes up the hypophyseal portal system & what is its function? capillary plexus of the median eminence & pituitary stalk; carries secretions from the hypothalamic nerves to the anterior pituitary
What are 3 functional adenomas of the pituitary? Cushing's (ACTH too high), acromegaly (too much somatotrophes), goiters (TSH)
What is the only cell sepcific to the posterior pituitary? pituicyte
Where are herring bodies? posterior pituitary
Where are nerves that enter the infundibulum & pars nervosa from? supraoptic & paraventricular nuceli of hypothalamus
Where is oxytocin stored? herring bodies
Where is oxytocin produced? cell bodies of neurons in the supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus
What does oxytocin stimulate? contraction of myoepithelial cells in mammary glands & contraction of uterus smooth muscle
Where is ADH stored? Herring bodies
What is the purpose of the pineal gland? prod. melatonin to relate light to endocrine activity (stim. by low light)
What are the 2 parenchymal cell types in pineal gland? pinealocytes (larger, melatonin) & interstial/glial cells (5%)
What is brain sand? corpora arenacea derived from precipitation of Ca & Mg in the pineal gland
Where is the thyroid? bi-lobed in neck anterolateral to larynx & upper trachea
What 2 key hormones does the thyroid produce? thyroxine (T4) & tri-iodothyronine (T3) - reg. cell & tissue metabolism stim. by TSH; Calcitonin (reg. blood Ca levels)
What do follicular cells in the thyroid secerete? T3 & T4
What are thyroid follicles filled with? colloid (contains thyroglobulin - T3/4 precursor)
What is the epithelium type of thyroid follicles? simple cuboidal with tight junctions
How is T4 release indicated? scalloped appearance in peripheral colloid indicating phagocytosis of colloid
What type of thyroid cells produce calcitonin? parafollicular (in follicle basal lamina, lowers Ca in blood)
WHat are 2 diseases of the thyroid? Grave's - too much TSH, enlarged thyroid & Simple goiter (iodne insufficiency)
What are the epithelium cells of the parathyroid? chief (secrete PTH, central nucleus, inc. Ca & phosphate in blood) & oxyphil
What are the 3 zones of the adrenal cortex? zona glomerulosa (prod. aldosterone - salt reg.), zona fasciculata (cortisol - carb. met., ACTH); zona reticularis (DHEA-sulfate, lipofuscin, ACTH)
What secretes catecholamines in the adrenal gland? adrenal medulla
What are chromaffin cells? adrenal medullary cells (mod. postganglionic neuronal celss with secretory function)
What do chromaffin cells with only large dense core granules secrete? NE
What do the chromaffin cells with smaller, more homogenous, and less dense granules secrete? E
Why does the adrenal medulla produce more adrenaline? glocucorticoids in cortex convert NE to E in medullary cells
What are 2 diseases of the adrenal gland? Addison's (dec. adrenocortical hormones - autoimmune) & Cushing's (too much ACTH & too much cortisol)
What are the 3 major cell types of the islets of Langerhans? alpha (20% - secrete glucagon - periphery), delta (10% - interspersed - secrete somatostatin - inhibits a & b cells), beta cells (60-70% - secrete insulin, center)
What are the 3 characteristics of acquired immunity? specificity, adaptive, memory
What are the 2 major types of lymphocytes? B & T cells
What are immunocompetent lymphocytes that have never encountered their antigen naive cells
What is the difference between B & T cells? B carry out humoral immunity (with antibodies) & T react to cell-bound (not free) antigens
What do B cells differentiate into when activated? plasma cells that produce antibodies
What are antibodies? large glycoproteins that bind antigens
What are the 2 classes of antibodies? IgA (mucosal env) & IgE (bind mast cells = degranulation)
What are the major types of activated T cells? cytotoxic T (Tc), Helper T (Th), Regulatory T (Treg)
What do Tc cells do? kill target cells directly (virus)
What do Th cells do? secrete cytokines (paracrine) - recruit other cells. Th1 (promote Tc activation & recruit macrophages) inflammation. Th2 - activate B cells
What to Treg cells do? inhibits immune response with cytokines
Where is activation phase? lymphoid organs
What presents antigen to naive T cells? APC cells (dendritic - related to macrophages)
Where are APC cells present? connective tissue, stratified epithelium (skin)
Where does lymphocyte activation occur? lymphoid tissue (APCs abundant here)
What are the secondary lymphoid organs? activation of response to antigen (lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal lymphoid tissue MALT)
What are primary lymphoid organs? where naive B & T cells created (bone marrow & thymus)
Where does lymphopoiesis occur? secondary lymphoid organs
How do lymphocytes maximize chance of encountering specific antigen? random circulation in secondary lymph organs
How does lymph flow thru lymph nodes? many afferent lymphs, subcapsular sinus, medullary sinus, 1 efferent lymphatic
What is the lymph node capsule? dense type I collagen (so is trabecula)
What makes up lymph node stroma? type III collagen reticular fibers with reticular cells (except blood vessels)
Where does antigen presentation occur in the lymph node? cortex
What are secondary follicles in lymph nodes? those with germinal center where B cell activation in progress
What dominates the parafollicular area of lymph nodes? T cells (APCs are here too)
Where does filtration of lymph occur in lymph nodes? medullary cords
What lines medullary sinus? plump endothelial cells - discontinous
What functions as a baffle to lymph flow in the lymph node? reticular fibers
What filters lymph? macrophages
How do lymphocytes in the blood enter lymph nodes? post capillary (HEV) in deep cortex
How do mucosal lymphoid tissues differ from lymph node tissue? no medulla, no afferent lymphatics (antigens ener from mucosal lumen), M cells take up & transport antigens
Where do plasma cells mature? medullary cords or connective tissue (migration pattern determined by changes in receptor expression during activation)
Where do effector T-cells go? inflammed peripheral tissues
What are the major tissue areas of spleen? red (most) & white pulp (basophilic)
What creates the largest lymphoid organ? white pulp
What are the functions of red pulp? filtration, converts reticuloytes to erythrocytes, removes old erythrocytes
What is the perifollicular zone in the spleen? edge of red pulp next to white pulp
How does spleen differ from lymph nodes? filters blood not lymph, no afferent lymphatics
What is unique about the spleen's vascular arrangement? open circulation: capillaries to extravascular space to venous sinuses
What does every area of white pulp have? central artery (branch from large trabecular arteries) displaced by B cells/follicles
What are PALS? periarterial lymphatic sheath containing primarily T cells & non-follicular
Where does extravasation of blood occur in spleen? red pulp
What are Billroth's strands (splenic cords)? reticular connective tissue between sinuses
What are penicillar arterioles? branches of the central artery in the spleen nearthe perifollicular zone
Does the perifollicular zone have sinuses? no
What is unusual about the venous sinuses in the spleen? endothelium are long & plump & oriented parallel to vessel's axis. Slits exist between celss that blood cells have to crawl through to get to vessel lumen (macrophages hang out here)
What are functions of red pulp? filtration (Billroth), cell testing (Billroth - iron retrieved), cell shape (squeeze thru?)
Where do all lymphocytes originate? bone marrow, then T cells go to Thymus & B cells stay in bone marrow
Where is the thymus? anterior to great vessels in superior mediastinum (2 lobes)
What makes up thymus? thymocytes - outer cortex darker than medulla (also lots of mast cells)
What forms support for thymus? septa & highly stellate epithelial cells (epi. reticular cells - not type 3 collagen - needed for T cell dev)
What are the 2 functional compartments of the thymus? cortex & medulla
What are the key functions of the thymus cortex? cortex (T-cell prod. macrophages, precursors in outer cortex, then prolif & diff. as pass thru cortex, antigen receptor dev, selection, no afferent lymphatics, blood thymus barrier)
What are the key functions of the thymus medulla? medulla (more epi. ret. cells, mature T leave by post cap venules or eff. lymphatics, contains Hassall's corpuscles
What is the blood-thymus barrier? occluding junctions (zonnula occludens - tight) between endothelial cells wrapped by epi. retic. cells with occluding junctions
What are Hassall's corpuscles? round epithelial cysts in thymus medulla
What is the mediastinum testis? composed if tunica albuginea contains rete testis
What represents the stem cells for spermatogenesis? Type A spermatogonia (1. Type A dark, 2. Type A pale) - stimulated by testerone - retain cytoplasmic bridges
What do Type A spermatogonia differentiate into? Type B which then give rise to spermatocytes
Where does meiosis I occur for sperm? between primary (1) & secondary spermatocyte (2)
Where does meiosis II occur for sperm? between secondary spermatocyte (2) & spermatid (4)
What are the phases of spematogenesis? golgi (hydrolytic enzymes in RER, trans golgi, anterior pole), cap (acrosomal vesicle over anterior half of nucleus), acrosome phase (spermatid head embeds in sertoli cells twd lamina propria), maturation phase (excess cytoplasm released)
What is essential for penetration of the ovum zona pellucida? acrosomal cap hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid phosphatase, acrosin
What constitutes the true epithelium fr the seminiferous epithelium? sertoli cells
When is spermatogenesis initiated? puberty
What are Sertoli endocrine functions? release of Mullerian inhibiting hormone = regression of female repro structs & secrete inhibin to reg. FSH
What are Sertoli exocrine functions secrete fluid that moves sperm into intratesticular ducts
Where are Leydig cells? interstium of seminiferous tubules
What are characteristics of Leydig cell? steroid producing (testerone) in smooth ER & mitochondira (tubulo-christae)
What regulates Leydig cells? LH
What lines tubuli recti? sertoli cells
What are rete testis epithelium like? simple cuboidal with microvilli & single apical cilium
What do the efferent ductules epithelium form? scallops
What do efferent ductules do? concentrate sperm
What regulates efferent ductules sperm conc.? estrogen via Na reasborption
Where do sperm mature? ductus epididymus (motility)
What characterizes the principal cells in psedostratified epithelium in ductus epididymus? stereocilia
What do principal cells do in the ductus epididymus? secrete sialic acid, glycoporteins, glycerophosphocholine & resorb fluid/phagocytose spermatid remnants
What are key epididymus transitions? principal cells decrease in heigh tin tail & smooth muscle inc. to 3 layers in tail
What is the site for vasectomy? vasdeferens
What has highest ratio of muscle to lumen in the body? vas deferens
What do seminal vesicles secrete? fructose, ascorbic acid, fibrinogen (clotting)
What type of gland is the prostate? compound tubulo-alveolar
Where are prostate glands? fibromuscular stroma with lots of smooth muscle bundles
What does prostate secrete? acid phosphatase, PSA (cancer diag.) - calicifcations = corpora amylacea
What secretes pre-seminal fluid? Bulbourethral/Cowper's galnds
What are the Glands of Littre? mucus secreting glands located on either side of urethra
Where is transtional epithelium found in the maile urethra? prostatic region
Where is the urethra embedded? corpus spongiousum
Where does the blood for erection come from? helicine arteries
What produces female gametes & hormones? ovary
What are the 2 phases of the female reproductive cycle? follicular (first half - estrogen) & luteal (second half - progesterone)
What is unique about the mesothelium covering the ovary? cuboidal instead of squamous = easier to break, cancer
Created by: UTSW1