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# Planning Theory

### Functional Plan Knowledge: Planning Theory, AICP Nov 2022 Test

TermDefinition
Rational Planning Theory Scientific Method without Use of People Theory dominated the 1950s. Does not specify who sets goals and is supposed to be value free. Should not be used if there isn't consensus on a particular issue for the goals should be based on public interest. Transportation Planning uses this method
Rational Planning Steps Basic steps of this theory: 1. set goals, 2. determine alternatives, 3. evaluate the alternatives, 4. choose and alternative, 5. implement the alternative, 6. evaluate
Challenges with Rational Planning Theory Herbert Simon says we "satisfice" = accept alternatives that are good enough. Assumes that a planner has perfect knowledge of all factors given without time or money limits. Not a good method when a problem is "wicked" like homelessness
Incremental Planning Theory Small Changes from Existing Charles Lindblom's 1959 article "The Science of Muddling Through." Introduced concept of incrementalism = people make their plans and decisions and goals through a series of successive, limited comparisons.
Incremental Planning Steps Basic steps of theory: 1. start with current situation, 2. analyze changes based on parameters around current situation, 3. consider making a few changes that have limited consequences over time, 4. focus on existing problems rather than desired state.
Challenges with Incremental Planning Theory Decision makers compare and evaluate increments and don't attempt to analyze alternatives in detail but consider where alternative differ from one another and what is doing presently. Ex. Zoning ordinance. Tweaked to accomplish comprehensive plan
Mixed Scanning Theory Tactical and Strategic Method Amitai Etzioni says it's a compromise between rational and incremental planning. Views decisions at the large scale and small scale. Policy decisions should be based on rational analysis; implementation decisions should have incremental approach.
Mixed Scanning Steps 1. identify problems, 2. use rational planning method for policy shaping decisions (comp plan), 3. use incremental planning method for implementation decisions (action items in plan).
Mixed Scanning Challenges Assumes there is a centralized decision-making process and does not identify who is involved in the process or whose values are used.
Advocacy Planning Theory Are Multiple Interests so Focus on Needs of Individuals Paul Davidoff. 1960s. Planners should represent special interest groups rather than acting for the good of the whole community. Create multiple plans for various interest groups. Downtown building owner plan plus homeless advocates for shelters downtown.
Advocacy Planning Steps 1. identify problems with several groups, 2. work with several groups to create goals and objectives for each plan, 3. implement several plans with various interests for interest group or inside advocate city hall.
Challenges with Advocacy Planning Can result in conflicting plans among interest groups leading to confusion on which one should be adopted and funded. The goal is for the planners to advocate for special groups.
Equity Planning Help Underserved Norman Krumholz used theory in Cleveland 1970s to make the needs of low-income groups the highest priority. The goal is for the planners to advocate specifically for the disadvantaged to redistribute power, resources, or participation away from the elite
Equity Planning Challenges Emphasis is given to process and organizational development rather than specific community objectives. Plans are evaluated on quality of life rather than delivery of services which can leave planners with no options if local leaders do not want them.
Transactive Planning John Friedmann published "Retracking America: A theory of Transactive Planning: in 1973 to get the public more involved with planning process.
Transactive Planning Steps Work One on One with Public 1. planner identifies potential issues, 2. meets with individuals in the community to discuss issues and help develop a plan, 3. uses "mutual learning" where planner shares technical knowledge and citizens provide community knowledge to develop plan
Challenges with Transactive Planning Requires a lot of time to meet with everyone, how to evaluate the importance of each person's community knowledge and it won't work in situations where there are multiple differences of opinion. How to rank value of someone's opinion
Radical Planning John Friedmann published "Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action." Discusses taking away power from the government to create a plan through the people. Citizens create their own plans.
Challenges with Radical Planning Difficult to implement because US governments don't allow the community to develop or implement their own plans. However, some housing authorities have done this with success.
Communicative Planning Consensus Building, Bringing Stakeholders Together Currently the theory of choice by planners to use more intensive citizen participation. Operates within the realm of politics and that it contains a variety of stakeholder interests by bringing people together to discuss issues. Planner is facilitator.
Communicative Planning Strengths Primary function is to listen to people's views and assist in forging a consensus among different viewpoints. Role is to mediate among stakeholders through talk and discussion around group understanding and consensus.
Created by: cristinemshoff
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