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PATH II Test 2

Chapters 13-15

TERMDEFINITION
Asthma An episodic and reversible branchospasm resulting from exaggerated response to stimuli
Emphysema is a permanent enlargement of the
Bronchiectasis is a permanent dilation of the
Atelectasis A collapsed lung due to inadequate expansion of
Obstructive lung disease Lung capacity and forced vital capacity are near normal but can’t get the air out.
Restrictive lung diseases characterized by
Asthma is trapped distal to bronchi so lungs overinflate
Emphysema permanent enlargement of the
Restrictive diseases The FVC is reduced and the FEV1 normal so
Chronic restrictive lung disease These patients have a proportionally reduced FEV1 / FVC and the ratio is not reduced.
Obstructive diseases FEV / FVC ratio is reduced
Intrinsic asthma Charcot-Leydin crystals (eosinophilic proteins)
Panacinar (panlobular) emphysema a1 – antitrypsin deficiency
classic emphysemic barrell chested
no bronchitis when present there is a pink buffer
Bronchitis when present there is a blue bloater
Interstitial lung disease is basement membrane
Endothelial Damage =poor perfusion
Alveolar Damage =poor ventilation
Restrictive lung disease: Adult respiratory distress syndrome ARDS:
ARDS is usually caused by endothelial damage
Goodpasture’s syndrome : Glomerulonephritis
pulmonary emboli More than 95% of ____________ arise from
Primary pulmonary : idiopathic hypertension
secondary pulmonary: (1) Chronic or interstitial lung disease.
Tuberculosis Infection means that the person has the TB
Tuberculosis Disease with TB does equates tissue damage
Ghon focus As sensitization develops there is a 1.5 cm
Ghon complex If bacilli spread to nodes –escapes from lung
Pott’s disease When vertebrae are affected by TB
Apical tumors (Pancoast tumors) may invade sympathetic plexus > Horner’s syndrome
Azotemia refers to an elevation of the blood
Post renal azotemia : is urine flow obstruction, uretur
Prerenal azotemia : is hypoperfusion. Kidney OK, blood clot outside kidney
Acute nephritic syndrome is acute onset of visible hematuria, moderate proteinuria, and hypertension.
Nephrotic syndrome has heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, lipiduria.nuria,
cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder
nephritis - inflammation of kidney
hematuria - bloody urine
hemoglobinuria – hemolytic disease
Acute renal failure (ARF) presents with oliguria (scant urine) or anuria (no urine) with the recent onset of azotemia. It can result from glomerular injury, interstitial injury, or acute tubular necrosis.
endothelial cells Fenestrated __________ - capillary walls
Glomerular basement membrane GMB - lamina rara and densa collagen, anionic proteoglycans, fibronectin
Visceral epithelial cells- podocytes with pedicels, filtration slits
Mesangial cells- separate capillaries, phagocytic, contractile
hematuria - bloody urine
hemoglobinuria – hemolytic disease
glucosuria – sugar in urine
proteinuria –loss of protein in urine(> 3.5 gm/day), (albumin)
Hyperlipidemia increased VLDL(associated with nephrotic syndrome appears to be a result of decreased plasma oncotic pressure, which stimulates hepatic VLDL synthesis and secretion)
nephritic syndrome albumin globulin ratio gets reversed (normal: albumin 4.4 gm/dl and globulin 2.5 gm/dl)
anasarca - Generalized edema
ascites – abdominal edema
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) The histologic picture is the presence of crescentic masses in Bowman’s capsule due parietal cell proliferation
Adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) - Defect in a gene producing polycystin
Urolithiasis is calculus formation at any level in the urinary collection system, but most often calculi arise in the kidney
Cystine stones can occur in genetically determined renal transport perturbations of certain amino acids and also as happens in uric acid stones, arises in acidic urine
hydroureter dilated ureter
Hydronephrosis refers to the dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces, with accompanying atrophy of the parenchyma, caused by obstruction to the outflow of urine
Renal cell carcinoma tumor can invade the renal vein and extend as a solid column even into the right side of the heart.
Wilms’ tumor Too many cells proliferate in the kidney, increase in size of kidney
Herpesvirus infection-HV1 -(fever blister, cold sore) - Common and transmitted by kissing
Genital herpes HSV -2 - Transmitted by sexual contact, Vesicles on genital area
Pseudomembrane - Candida albicans plaque when immunoprotection is lowered
thrush - Candida albicans, Adherent white curd-like plaques anywhere in the mouth.
Hairy leukoplakia is almost exclusively seen in AIDS and is caused by infection with the Epstein- Barr virus. Does not go to carcinoma. Whitish, well-defined, mucosal patch or plaque caused by epidermal thickening or hyperplasia
Aphthous ulcers (canker sores) . Common, small (< 5 mm), painful, shallow ulcers. They form singly or as a group covered with a gray exudate and rimmed by erythematous tissue. They appear on the soft palate, buccolabial mucosa, floor of the mouth, and lateral sides of the tongue.
squamous cell carcinomas The overwhelming preponderance of oral cavity cancers are
Sjogren’s syndrome (blank)
Created by: jrodx