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Costal Cartilages

Role of Costal Cartilages Prolong ribs anteriorly & contribute to elasticity of thoracic wall. Prevent blows from fracturing sternum/ribs. Elderly undergo calcification
Rib Excision Incision through periosteum at rib curve. Piece of rib removed, will regenerated
Rib Fractures Weakest part - anterior to angle. Middle ribs most fractured. Can puncture lung/spleen
Flail Crest When sizeable segment of anterior/lateral thoracic wall moves freely b/c multiple fractures
Supernumerary Ribs Normally 12 ribs/side. Number increased by presence of cervical and/or lumbar ribs, or decreased by failure of 12th rib to form.
sternal fractures Occur during traumatic compression of thoracic wall. Common fracture at body of sterum angle, results in dislocation of manubiosternal joint
median sternotomy sternum split in median plane, retracted and reunited w/ wire sutures
sternal biopsies sternal body used for bone marrow needle biopsy
thoracic outlet syndrome superior thoracic aperture emphasizing important nn. & aa. thru aperture into lower neck & upper limb, ex. costoclavicular syndrome
rib dislocation slipping rib syndrome, displacement of costal cartilage from sternum; pain w/deep respiratory movements. Common in contact sports, cause pressure/damage to nn. vessels, mm.
rib separation dislocation of costochondral junction btwn rib & costal cartilage. Separations of 3-10th ribs, tearing perichondrium & periosteum, thus rib moves superiorly, overriding rib above
diaphram paralysis detection by paradoxical movement. To 1/2 of diaphragm b/c injury to motor supply from phrenic n. only affects 1 dome. Paralyzed dome pushes superiorly by abdominal viscera that are compressed by active side, instead of descending during inspiration
pulmonary collapse If sufficient amount of air enters air pleural cavity, surface tension adhering visceral to parietal pleura (lung to thoracic wall) broken, lung collapses b/c elastic recoil. At collapse, pleural cavity becomes real space
pleuritis inflammation of pleurae makes lung surfaces rough, friction heard w/stethoscope. Acute is sharp, stabbing pain w/exertion
Created by: JYarger