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India vocab.

Subcontinent a large piece of land that is smaller than a continent, usually separated by geographical features
Himalayas Protect ancient people from invaders, has the highest mountain in the world (Mt. Everest)
Indus River Home to India’s first river valley civilization
Ganges River India’s holy river that is considered a goddess
Monsoons Seasonal winds, Summer → winds from Indian Ocean→ Wet season, Winter→ winds from mountains→ Dry season
Harappan/Indus Valley Civilization India’s first civilization, largest river-valley civilization. It was doing well because of the Indus River and arable land. organized a government and cities. It’s fall is unknown due to language, but we think it fell due to natural disasters.
Cities of Harappa & Mohenjo Daro They are “twin cities”
Ancient Aryans India’s main group. It’s reign was from 2000-1000 BCE. From the Caucus Mountains to the Caspian Sea. Families lived in independent villages with Rajas as their leader. It fell because the Aryans taveled to different parts of the world.
Sanskrit Root of Indo, European language
Raja Independent villages leaders
Vedas Collection of writings of HInduism
Varna → Caste System The system that split up classes into different jobs and added additional jobs.
Brahmins Priests, teachers
Kshatriyas Rulers, warriors
Vaisyas Farmers, craftspeople, traders
Sudras Workers, servants, foreigners
Untouchables/Harijan Do the unskilled work, were discriminated against
Social Mobility When you can marry or get a job outside of your own class
Brahmanism → Hinduism It was first described in the Vedas as Brahmanism. Is a polytheistic religion.
Polytheism Belief in many gods
Brahma Creator
Vishnu Preserver
Shiva Destroyer/ Rebuilder
Atman Person’s essential’s self (soul)
Brahman Supreme force (soul) of the universe
Reincarnation The soul’s multiple rebirth
Dharma Duties and tasks
Kharma Effect of dharma
Moksha Goal for one’s soul to unite with Brahman for salvation
Jainism Was created in 599 BC in India, was founded by Mahavira. Do not believe in gods but are more concerned about one’s soul. They are non- violent
Ahimsa Non violent
Sikhism Believes in one god, and caste system, is a combination of Islam and Hinduism
Combination Religion Sikhism
Siddhartha Guatama/The Buddha Was born as a Hindu prince, is like the main leader of Buddhism.
Fasting Not eating for a period of time
Meditation When one is in a peaceful state
Nirvana Goal, when you’re at peace.
4 Noble Truths 1. Life= suffering, 2. Desire for pleasure and materialism= suffering , 3. Renounce/ Rid desires help people to, Attain nirvana, and end recourination, 4. Follow the 8 fold path.
Eightfold Path Thought, Intent, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.
The Middle Way Is between luxury and self denial
Theravada Think of Buddha as a teacher, strict adherence to teachings
Mahayana Think of Buddha as a god-like, interprets teachings
Missionaries People who help spread religion, that is their mission
Mauryan Empire 320 BC- 185 BC, Buddhism, Practiced non- violence, expanded territory, were prosperous, fell after Ashoka died followed by division and warfare.
Candragupta Maurya Got control of the northern part of India
Ashoka Candragupta’s grandson, encouraged Buddihsm and made the empire prosperous
Gupta Empire 320 AD- 500 BCE, Hinduism and Caste system, expanded territory, reunited India, was the “Golden Age”, invented Hindu- Arabic Numerals, fell in 500 BC.
Candragupta I United India
Candragupta II Encouraged Caste System, made India more prosperous
Stupas Buildings with domed roofs and have things that were the Buddah’s
Hindu Text Mahabharata, Ramayana
Hindu-Arabic Numerals Gupta Empire invented it, it invented the concept of 0 and decimal system 1-9
Created by: 27mrendell
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