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Renal histology UCI

UCI Histo test 5

QuestionAnswer
Exocrine fxns of kidney water volume regulation; solute/electrolyte balance; acid-base reg; waste excretion
endocrine fxns of kidney renin and erythropoietin
structures found in renal cortex renal corpuscles, conv. Tubules, medullary rays
structures found in renal medulla loops of Henle, vasa recta, collecting tubules
structures found in a renal lobule 1 collecting duct and nephrons
kidney artery structure from big to small ending in venous drainage) R. Artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, capillary plexus, efferent arteriole, 2nd capillary plexus (vasa recta), venous drainage
what does the glomerulus consist of capillary plexus surrounded by Bowman's capsule
what arteriole is larger, afferent or efferent afferent
juxtaglomerular cells the cells in the afferent arteriole right next to the glomerulous (hence the juxta) that secrete renin after being stimulated by the macula densa cells that butt up against them from the distal tubule (mostly smooth muscle cells)
macro layers of Bowman's capsule (inside out) endothelium, basal lamina, secondary process of podocyte, primary process of podocyte, podocyte (filtration slits between secondary processes and a intraglomerular mesangial cell that sits in the middle of it all)
pathway of urine from blood inside bowman's capsule through endothelial fenestrae, rara, densa (basal lamina), rara, slit pore membrane (filtration slits), past podocyte processes
what is rara made of and what does it do proteoglycan heparan sulfate; traps negatively charged molecules
what covers the podocyte processes polyanionic sulfate coat
what does the lamina densa do traps larger molecules (>69 Kda)
what does the slit pore membrane do traps macromolecules >4nm
glomerulonephritis inflammation of glomerular capillary plexus; depostion of antibodies in basal lamina or antibodies against basal lamina proteins
lipoid nephrosis fusion of adjacent pedicels
albumin in urine 70kDa; test of integrity of filtration barrier
renal corpuscle cell type consists of glomerulus, bowman's capsule; made of simple squamous epithelium
proximal convoluted tubule cell type simple cuboidal epithelium
loop of henle (thick and thin segments) cell type thick: simple cuboidal epithelium; thin: simple squamous epithelium
distal convoluted tubule cell type simple cuboidal epithelium
collecting tubule cell type simple cuboidal epithelium
what does the nephron consist of renal corpuscle, prox. Conv. Tub., loop of henle (thick desc. Prox., thin segment, thick asc. Distal), dist. Conv. Tub., collecting tubule
two types of nephrons cortical vs. juxtamedullary
outer stripe of outer medulla has what? thick and/or thin segments? just thick
inner stripe of outer medulla has what? Thick and/or thin segments? thick and thin
inner medulla has what? Thick and/or thin segments? just thin
what is the main function of the proximal convoluted tubule uptake Na+, glucose, AA's
what is the main function of the distal convoluted tubule K+ secretion
why do p.c.t.'s stain darker than collecting tubule or d.c.t.'s because they have tons of pumping action going on
macula densa part of the distal tubule that butts up against the juxtaglomerular cells; macula densa are sensative to Na+ and signal to juxtaglomerular cells to release renin
other names for mesangial cells and mesangial cell properties lacis cells, polkissen; phagocytic, contractile
collecting tubule cell type, characteristic, and embryonic derivation simple cuboidal epithelium; normally impermeable to water (ADH increases permeability); derived from metanephric diverticulum (rest of nephron derived from metanephric mesoderm)
type of cells from ureters to bladder and what pushes urine to bladder transitional epithelium; peristaltic movement
musculature of urinary bladder 3 layers of smooth muscle; middle (circular) layer froms internal sphincter muscle; external sphincter is formed from skeletal muscle fibers from the abdominal wall as urethra passes through the peritoneum
interstitial cystitis chronic inflammation of bladder; not bacterial/viral; breakdown of glycosaminoglycans that normally protect the epithelium; urine irritates bladder; no known treatment
prostate layers (inside to outside) mucosal glands, submucosal glands (ejaculatory ducts are in this layer), and main prostatic glands
urethra cell type/s, muscle, and glands proximally, transitional epithelium; distally, stratified squamous epithelium (males are pseudostratified and stratified columnar); inner longitudinal, outer circular layers of smooth muscle; mucous glands of Littre in lamina propria
alveoli have what kind of cells simple squamous epithelium
how many generations of respiratory tubes 20-30
conducting portion of respiratory system (starting at nose) nasal cavity, nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
respiratory portion of respiratory system respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
conchae bony protrussions on lateral walls of nasal cavity (3 of them, sup., middle, inf.)
vestibular mucosa lined by thin skin with vibrissae
respiratory mucosa has what type of cells and has what characteristics pseudostratified columnar; lamina propria is well vascularized; many seromucous glands and lymphoid elements
olfactory mucosa has what type of cells thick pseudo stratified epithelium with olfactory neurons
lamina propria of olfactory mucosa has what bowman's glands, nerve bundles, venous sinuses
olfactory epithelium has what cell types sustentacular cells, olfactory cells, and basal cells
characteristics of olfactory cells they are neuroepithelial cells (part of pseudo-stratified epithelium), have high mitotic rate; have axons extending into the CNS
what kind of molecules are odor stimuli wide range of small (<200 Da), often lipid soluble molecules
how do olfactory cells receive the signal from odors G-protein couples receptors; different cells-different odor sensitivity
how much of our genome is set aside for olfactory sense 4-5%
bullet going through front of trachea to the back hits what layers (specific) adventitia, hyaline cartilage, submucosa (with seromucous glands), mucous membrane (pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium), mucous membrane, submucosa, trachealis muscle, adventitia/esophagus
what kind of glands are tracheal submucosal glands mixed
types of cells in tracheal epithelium sustantacular cells, goblet cells, basal cells
layers of primary bronchus mucosa (epithelium, lamina propia, mucous muscularis), submucosa, adventitia w/ Hyaline cartilage
size of bronchioles less than 1 mm in diameter
size of terminal bronchioles less than 0.5 mm in diameter
what do C-rings of the trachea become in the bronchi cartilage plates
what happens to the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of trachea and bronchi become later on simple columnar and then simple cuboidal epithelium
what happens to smooth muscle as the bronchi branch becomes more prominent and functionally important in bronchioles
what happens to elastic tissue as the bronchi branch increases in alveolar ducts and alveoli
what happens to glands asthe bronchi branch seromucous glands decrease in smaller bronchioles; goblet cells not found distal to terminal bronchioles
two types of epithelial cells lining alveoli have what kind of cells type I alveolar cells (type I pneumocytes) have simple squamous epithelium (occupy >90% of alveolar surface); type II alveolar cells (type II pneumocytes) have simple cuboidal epithelium
what do type II pneumocytes do make the phospholipid component of surfactant
what do type I pneumocytes do help in the O2 CO2 exchange
respiratory membrane components alveolar epithelium, fused basal laminae of the alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium, capillary endothelium
five main types of cells within the alveoli type I, type II, endothelial cells, RBC, macrophages
size of blood/air barrier 0.45 micrometers
at what thickness does the blood/air barrier have exchange impairment 0.8 micrometers
what do clara cells do and where are they found found in terminal and respiratory bronchioles; secrete glycoproteins that protect bronchiolar epithelium; do not provide surfactant
respiratory distress syndrome insufficient lung surfactant is produced for lung expansion to occur in newborns born prior to 7 months gestation; give synthetic surfactant & glucocorticoid (matures type II cells)
what surrounds alveoli and why is it important elastic tissue; important during exhalation
Created by: droid