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Chapter 2 Vocabulary and Critical & Comprehension Questions/Answers

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Fertile Crescent a region in southwest Asia; site of the first civilizations
City state city is that is also a separate, independent state
Polytheism the belief in many gods
Myth a traditional story; in some cultures a legend that explains peoples beliefs
Describe the geography of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers had rich soil and plentiful water.
How do you Mesopotamians geography help civilizations to develop in this area? Abundant water in fertile soil encourage people to settle in the area and develop civilizations
In what ways were Sumerian cities alike? Sumerian cities were well developed, head high walls to keep out invaders, large temples, houses, busy shops, markets and splendid royal palaces
In what ways were the cities of Sumer different? It’s city was its own politically independent city state; each had its own ruler, special gods or goddesses, and it’s own government
How did Sumerians practice religion? Sumerians worshiped at temples called ziggurats; they practiced polytheism and made sure their gods were properly cared for
What do the religious practices of the Sumerians tell us about their values? Sumerians greatly admired their gods, enjoyed food and music, and love their cities
Empire many territories and People’s controlled by one government
Babylon the capital of Babylonia; a city of great wealth and luxury
Caravan a group of traders traveling together
Battering ram a powerful weapon with a wooden beam mounted on wheels
What were Babylonia and Assyria and where are they located? Important Mesopotamian empires located in southwest Asia minor.
Analyze how the following proverb applies to Mesopotamia: “you go and carry off the enemies land; the enemy comes and carries off your land. “ this proverb describes how empires in the region were continually conquering other empires, as well as being conquered
Describe the empires of Babylonia and Assyria. Babylonia united the cities of Sumer & stretch all the way to Asia minor; it was a great military power and a center of trade. Assyria was an empire of skilled warriors that stretched across the Fertile Crescent, from the Nile river to the Persian Gulf.
How are the two empires similar? ? Both empires covered vast amounts of territory and had strong armies
How was new Babylonia created? New Babylonia was created under the Chaldean’s after they conquered the Syrians; King Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt the city of Babylon.
What do the achievements of the new Babylonian empire tell us about what was important to the Chaldeans? The Chaldeans valued learning and science, because they made important advancements in astronomy in the science of time keeping.
code an organized list of laws and rules
Hammurabi the king of Babylon from about 1792 to 1750 BC; creator of the Babylonian empire
Cuneiform groups of wedges and lines used to write several languages of the Fertile Crescent
What was Hammurabi‘s code, and what was its purpose in Ancient Babylonia? A written set of laws fall by Babylonians; to prevent people from breaking the rules and to punish them if they did.
What does the expression “an eye for an eye” mean in relation to the laws in Hammurabi‘s code? That the punishment equaled a crime
Hammurabi‘s code was fair in someways and unfair in other ways. Explain. Fair - laws are made to help people settle complex; unfair – laws were applied unequally depending on the victims class
what were some of the early uses for the art of writing? To keep records, create references, record personal messages
How did the early forms and methods of writing differ from the way we write today? Today we write with letters instead of symbols; we use pens, pencils, paper and computers instead of sharp tools and clay tablets.
Why was the development of writing an important step in human history? It allowed us to clearly state laws and keep records
alphabet a set of symbols that represent the sounds of a language
monotheism the belief in one god
famine a time when there is so little food that many people starve
exile to force someone to live in another country
who were the Phoenicians? The Phoenicians developed an empire through trade along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
How did the Phoenicians gain their wealth and power? At first, they sold wood and dye; later they gained wealth and power through trade to and from lands around the Mediterranean Sea.
What are some features of the Phoenician alphabet? the alphabet had 22 symbols that represented the sounds of the Phoenician language; each letter stood for one consonant sound.
describe the importance of the Phoenician alphabet. How did it affect the Mediterranean world and later civilizations? the Phoenician alphabet was easy to learn. as a result its use was widespread and no longer limited to scribes. it formed the basis for the alphabet used today in many countries.
briefly trace the history of the Israelites from the leadership of Abraham to King Solomon (K.S.). Abraham led the Israelites from Mesopotamia to Canaan. Famine made them leave for Egypt, but were then forced into labor. Moses led them out of Egypt to Canaan. King Saul and David reclaimed Canaan and unified the Israel nation. Israel prospered with K.S.
what important events in the history of the Israelites were shaped by movement and by war? The Israelites moved to Egypt to escape famine, then wandered in the desert after leaving Egypt. They fought a war to regain control of Canaan and live as a united nation. later they divided and were sent into exile.
covenant a promise made by God
Moses an Israelite leader whom the Torah credits with leading the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan.
prophet a religious teacher who is regarded as someone who speaks for God or for a god
diaspora the scattering of people who have a common background or beliefs
what promise did the Israelites believe God made to Abraham? they believed God promised Abraham that his people would become kings and build nations
what did God's covenant with Abraham require of the Israelites? to obey God faithfully
why did the Israelites believe that they were God's chosen people? according to the Torah, based on the covenant made between God and Abraham and later renewed by Moses
what religious laws did the Israelites follow? the religious laws set forth in the Torah, including the Ten Commandments.
How does Judaism compare and contrast with the beliefs of other peoples in the ancient world? Most ancient people believed many gods were connected to specific places, but the Israelites believed in one all-powerful god.
What do the laws of Judaism say about the moral values of the Israelites? these laws show that the Israelites were concerned with honoring God above men; with issues of right and wrong and helping the less fortunate.
bazaar a market selling different kinds of goods
Created by: krodriguez24
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