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AP Govt Chap. 9

AP Government Chapter 9

Bureaucracy A set of complex hierarchial departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. Beuraucracies may be private organizations of govermental units.
Spoils System The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party.
Patronage Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Pendleton Act Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination.
Civil Service System The system created by civil service laws by which many appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made.
Merit System The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
Independent Regulatory Commision An agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy.
Hatch Act Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act 1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
Departments Major administrative units with responsibilty for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental funcion, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Government Corporations Businesses established by Congres that perform functions that could be provided by private businesses (such as the U.S. Postal Service).
Independent Executive Agencies Govermental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have a narrower area of responsibilty (such as the Central Intelligence Agency) and are not part of any Cabinet department.
Implementation The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
Iron Triangles The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interst groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
Issue Networks The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
Interagency Councils Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of govermental agencies.
Administrative Discretion The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions.
Rule Making A qusi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a leglislative act.
Regulations Rules that govern the operation of a particular goverment program that have the force of law.
Administrative Adjudication A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
Executive Orders Rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Created by: Rebecca3