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Vanders Physiology 3

Chapter 3: Cellular Structure, Proteins, and Metabolism

Cell containing a membrane-enclosed nucleus with genetic material; plant and animal cells Eukaryotic Cell
Maxim that an increase in reactant concentration causes a chemical reaction to proceed in direction of product formation; the opposite occurs with decreased reactant concentration Law of Mass Action
Energy necessary to disrupt existing chemical bonds during a chemical reaction Activation Energy
Formation of glucose by the liver or kidneys from pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, or amino acids Gluconeogenesis
A class of breakdown products formed from the deamination of amino acids Keto Acid
Three-nucleotide sequence in TRNA able to base-pair with complementary codon in MRNA during protein synthesis Anticodon
Membrane-bound cell organelle containing digestive enzymes in a highly acid solution that break down bacteria, large molecules that have entered cell, and damaged components of cell Lysosome
Three-nucleotide sequence in MRNA that signifies end of protein coding sequence "Stop Signal"
Strength with which ligand binds to its binding site Affinity
Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction CO2+H2O=H2CO3 Carbonic Anhydrase
One of a series of enzymes that couples energy to ATP formation during oxidative phosphorylation Cytochrome
Ionized form of lactic acid Lactate
Rod-shaped or oval cytoplasmic organelle that produces most of cell's ATP;site of krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes Mitochondrion
Reactant in enzyme-mediated reaction Substrate
Sequence of enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which molecules are synthesized and broken down in cells Metabolic Pathway
Ligand that, by acting at an allosteric regulatory site, alters properties of other binding sites on a protein and thus regulates its functional activity Modulator Molecule
Cytoplasmic particle that mediates linking together of amino acids to form proteins; attached to endoplasmic reticulum as bound ribosome, or suspended in cytoplasm as free ribosome Ribosome
Cell junction in which extracellular surfaces of the plasma membrane of two adjacent cells are joined together; extends around epithelial cell and restricts molecule diffusion through space between cells Tight Junction
Reaction in which an amino acid amino group (-NH2) is transferred to a ketoacid the ketoacid thus becoming an amino acid Transanimation
Formation of RNA containing, in linear sequence of its nucleotides, the genetic information of a specific gene; first stage of protein synthesis Transcription
In presence of oxygen Aerobic
Region of cell cytoplasm in which microtubule formation and elongation occur, particularly during cell division Centrosome
Organic cofactor; generally serves as a carrier that transfers atoms or small molecular fragments from one reaction to another; is not consumed in the reaction and can be reused Coenzyme
Proteins required for ribosomal assembly and the establishment of an initiation complex that allows new protein synthesis to begin Initiation Factors
Protein and nuclear RNA complex that removes introns and links exons together during gene transcription Spliceosome
During protein synthesis, assembly of amino acids in correct order according to genetic instructions in MRNA; occurs on ribosomes Translation
A protein that spans the plasma membrane and contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions; often acts as a receptor or an ion channel Transmembrane Protein
Amino acid that cannot be formed by the body at all (or at rate adequate to meet metabolic requirements) and must be obtained from diet Essential Amino Acid
Mitochondrial metabolic pathway that utilizes fragments derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat breakdown and produces carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and small amounts of ATP; also called TRI carboxylic acid cycle or citric acid cycle Krebs Cycle
An enzyme capable of breaking peptide bonds in a protein Protease
Any enzyme that phosphorylates other proteins by transferring to them a phosphate group from ATP Protein Kinase
A complex of proteins capable of denaturing (unfolding) other proteins and assisting in protein degradation Proteasome
Small intracellular peptide that attaches and directs them to proteasomes Ubiquitin
Region of enzyme to which substrate binds Active Site
Opening in nuclear envelope through which molecular messengers pass between nucleus and cytoplasm Nuclear Pore
Particular steroid molecule; precursor of steroid hormones and bile salts and a component of plasma membranes Cholesterol
Major nitrogenous waste product of protein breakdown and amino acid catabolizm Urea
Organic molecule that is required in trace-amounts for normal health and growth, but it is not manufactured in the body and must be supplied by diet; classified as water-soluble (Vit C & B complex) and fat soluble (Vit A, D, E, and K) Vitamin
Maxim that an increase in reactant concentration causes a chemical reaction to proceed in direction of product formation; the opposite occurs with decreased reactant concentration Law of Mass Action
Double membrane surrounding cell nucleus Nuclear Envelope
Large membrane-bound organelle that contains cell's DNA; (neural) cluster of neuron cell bodies in CNS Nucleus
Tubular cytoplasmic filament compsed of the protein tubulin; provides internal support for cells and allows change in cell shape and organelle movement in cell Microtuble
Intracellular fluid that surrounds cell organelles and nucleus Cytosol
State when rates of forward and reverse components of a chemical reaction are equal, and no net change in reactant or product concentration occurs Chemical Equiliibrium
H2O2; Chemical produced by phagosome and highly destructive to macromolecules Hydrogen Peroxide
Protein embedded in membrane lipid layer; may span entire membrane or be located at only one side Integral Membrane Protein
Any molecule or ion that binds to protein surface by noncovalent bonds Ligand
Rod-like cytoplasmic actin filament that forms major component of cytoskeleton Microfilament
Small cytoplasmic body having nine fused sets of microtubules; participates in nuclear and cell division Centriole
DNA region containing code words for a part of the amino acid sequence of a protein Exon
Region of cell interior outside the nucleus Cytoplasm
Substance that accelerates chemical reactions but does not itself undergo any net chemical change during the reaction Catalyst
Combination of DNA and nuclear proteins; principal component of chromosomes Chromatin
Protein whose biding site characteristics are subject to allosteric modulation Allosteric Protein
A series of metal-containing proteins within mitochondria that participate in the flow of electrons from proteins to molecular oxygen; they are key compnents of the energy-producing processes in all cells Electron Transport Chain
Junction that holds two cells together; consists of plasma membranes of adjacent cells linked by fibers, yet separated by a 20-NM extracellular space filled with a cementing substance Desmosome
Cell membrane structure consists of proteins embedded in bimolecular lipid that has the physical properties of a fluid, allowing membrane proteins to move laterally within it Fluid-Mosaic Model
Actin-comtaining filament associated with desmosomes Intermediate Filament
Region of protein to which a specific ligand binds Binding Site
Factor in the environment that increases mutation rate Mutagen
Cellular synthesis of organic molecules Anabolism
Ability of similar molecules to combine with the same binding site or receptor Competition
Protein catalyst that accelerates specific chemical reactions but does not itself undergo net chemical change during the reation Enzyme
Nuclear complexes of several histones and their associated coils of DNA Nucleosome
Class of proteins that participate in the packaging of DNA within the nucleus; strands of DNA form coils around the histones Histones
Any change in badse sequence of DNA that changes genetic information Mutation
Hydrophilic proteins associated with cytoplasmic surface of cell membrane Peripheral Membrane Protein
Cell organelle that destroys certain toxic products by oxidative reactions Peroxisome
Rate at which enzyme converts reactant to product; may be measure of the properties of enzyme's active site as altered by allosteric or covalent modulation; affects rate of enzyme-mediated reaction Enzyme Activity
A group of transcription factors and accessory proteins that associate with promoter regions of specific genes; the complex is required for gene transcription to commence Preinitation Complex
Cells such as bacteria that do not contain their genetic information within a membrane-enclosed nucleus Procaryotic Cells
Chemical reactions that occur in a living organism Metabolism
Cell organelle consisting of flattened membranous sacs; usually near nucleus; processes newly synthesized proteins for secretion or distribution to other organelles Golgi Apparatus
Lipid subclass similar to triglyceride except that a phosphate group (-PO4 2-) and small nitrogen-containing molecule are attached to third hydroxyl group of glycerol; major component of cell membranes Phospholipid
Specific nucleotide sequence at beginning of gene that controls the initiation of gene transcription; determines which of the paired strands of DNA is transcribed into RNA Promoter
Highly coiled, condensed form of chomatin formed in cell nucleus during mitosis and meiosis Chromosome
Densely staining nuclear region containing portions of DNA that code for ribosomal proteins Nucleolus
Transmembrane protein in plasma membrane; binds to specific proteins in extracellular matrix and on adjacent cells to help organize cells into tissues Integrin
Cytoplasmic filamentous network associated with cell shape and movement Cytoskeleton
Membrane that forms outer surface of cell and separates cell's contents from extracellular fluid Plasma Membrane
Site on protein that interacts with modulator molecule; alters functional site properties Regulatory Site
Metabolic intermediate that transfers acetyl groups to krebs cycle and various synthetic pathways Acetyl Coenzyme A (Aceyle COA)
In the absence of oxygen Anaerobic
Anion formed when pyruvic acid loses a hydrogen ion Pyruvate
Protein channels linking cytosol of adjacent cells; allows ions and small molecules to flow between cytosols of the connected cells Gap Junction
Substance required for normal or optimal body function but synthesized by the body either not at all or in amounts inadequate to prevent disease Essential Nutrient
Highly branched polysaccaride composed of glucose subunits; major carbohydrate storage form in body Glycogen
Globular contractile protein to which myosin crossbridges bind; located in muscle thin filaments and in microfilaments of cytoskeleton Actin
Three-carbon molecule that combines with fatty acids to from triglyceride; also called glycerol 3-phosphate Alpha-Glycerol Phosphate
Control of protein binding site properties by modulator molecules that bind to regions of the protein other than the binding site altered by them Allosteric Modulation
Fluid in cells; cytosol plus fluid in cell organelles, including nucleus Intracellular Fluid
Regions of noncoding nucleotides in a gene Intron
Process by which energy derived from reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to form water is transferred to ATP during its formation Oxidative Phosphorylation
Three-base sequence in MRNA that determines the position of a specific amino acid during protein synthesis or designates the end of the coded sequence of a protein Codon
Series of reactions that generate hydrogen atoms (for oxidative phosphorylation) from breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl COA Beta Oxidation
The proposed mechanism by which ATP is formed during oxidative phosphorylation, the hypothesis proposes that the movement of protons across mitochondrial inner membranes is coupled with ATP production Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
Ribonucleic acid that transfers genetic information for a protein's amino acid sequence from DNA to ribosome Messenger RNA (MRNA)
Enzyme that removes phosphate from protein Phosphoprotein Phosphatase
Chemical reaction that releases large quantities of energy and results in almost all the reactant molecules being converted to product Irreversible Reaction
Addition of phosphate group to an organic molecule Phosphorylation
An RNA molecule transcribed from a gene before nitron removal and splicing Primary RNA Transcript
Alteration of a protein's shape, and therefore its function by the covalent binding of various chemical groups to it Covalent Modulation
Metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to two molecules of pyruvate (aerobically) or two molucules of lactate (anaerobically) Glycolysis
Type of RNA used in ribosome assembly; becomes part of ribosome Ribosomal RNA (RRNA)
Unit of hereditary information; portion of DNA containing information required to determine a protein's amino acid sequence Gene
Cellular breakdown of organic molecules Catabolism
Enzyme that forms RNA by joining together appropriate nucleotides after they have base-paired to DNA RNA Polymerase
Membrane-bound vesicle produced by golgi apparatus; contains protein to be secreted by cell Secretory Vesicle
Organic or inorganic substance that binds to a specific region of an enzyme and is necessary for the enzyme's activity Cofactor
Chemical reaction in which energy release is small enough for reverse reaction to occur readily Reversible Reaction
Initial portion of newly synthesized protein (if protein is destined for secretion) Signal Sequence
Energy necessary to disrupt existing chemical bonds during a chemical reaction Activation Energy
Formation of glucose by the liver or kidneys from pyruvate, lactate glycerol, or amino acids Gluconeogenesis
A class of breakdown products fromed from the deamination of amino acids Keto Acid
Three-nucleotide sequence in TRNA able to base-pair with complementary codon in MRNA during protein syntbesis Anticodon
Membrane-bound cell organelle containing digestive enzymes in a highly acid solution that break down bacteria, large molecules that have entered cell, and damaged components of cell Lysosome
Harilike projections from specialized epithelial cells; sweep back and forth in a synchronized way to propel material along epithelial surface Cilia
Inhibition of a metabolic pathway by final product's action upon allosteric site on an enzyme (usually the rate-limiting enzyme) in the pathway End-Product Ihibition
Membrane-bound compartment, nonmembranous particle, or filament that performs specialized functions in cell Cell Organelle
Type of RNA; different TRNAs combine with different amino acids and with codon on MRNA specific for that amino acid, thus arranging amino acids in sequence to form specific protein Transfer RNA (TRNA)
Complete set of an organism's genes Genome
Fuzzy coating on extracellular surface of plasma membrane; consists of short, branched carbohydrate chains Glycocalyx
Interaction between functional binding sites in a multimeric protein Cooperativity
Amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 L water by 1 ºC; calorie used in nutrition; also called calorie and large calorie Kilocalorie (KCAL)
Cell specialized for triglyceride synthesis and storage; fat cell Adipocyte
Direct transfer of phosphate group from metabolic intermediate to ADP to form ATP Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
One of a class of proteins that act as gene switches, regulating the transcription of a particular gene by activating or repressing the initiation process Transcription Factor
Tissue composed largely of fat-storing cells Adipose Tissue
Reaction in which an amino group (-NH2) from an amino acid is replaced by oxygen to form a keto acid Oxidative Deamination
Intracellular vesicles and tubular elements between golgi apparatus and plasma membrane; sorts and distributes vesicles during endo- and exocytosis Endosome
Slowest reaction in metabolic pathway; catalyzed by rate-limiting enzyme Rate-Limiting Reaction
Binding site on allosteric protein that, when activated, carries out protein's physiological function; also called active site Functional Site
Occupation of all available binding sites by their ligand Saturation
The major protein component of microtubules Tubulin
Unit of heat-energy measurement; amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1 G of water 1 ºC Calorie (CAL)
Created by: hanfire



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