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AICP Planng History1

Early history of planning. Reviews events up to 1899.

QuestionAnswer
What is the "White City"? Who designed it? When? The World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair). Daniel Burnham was a principal designer. The Exposition was held in 1893 (400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World).
What is the planning significance of Central Park? Who was it designer & builder? It was created in the mid 1800s as an a way to address the lack of green space in cities. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Built by Calvert Vaux.
What is the "Cumberland Road"? When was its built? The "National Road" built by the Federal gov't to tie the east and west together in 1811. Ran from Cumberland, MD to Vandalia, IL
What were the 3 major ports of immigration in 1811. Chicago, NY, Philadelphia
What are the most significant laws of the Public Health Movement? NYC Tenement Law of 1867 and a San Francisco ordinance that ended slaughter houses in 1867.
Why did the Public Health Movement die out? The Public Health Movement died out in the 1920s as local governments were given authority to regulate issues.
Explain what the S - T - R system is and how it was used. S - T - R : Section, Town, Range government classification system established by the "Ordinance of 1785" to promote land speculation and development in the west.
What was the intent of the "Land Ordinance of 1785"? What is its planning significance? The rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest was created to provide a systematic way to divide and distribute land to people. It is called the "largest single act of national planning in our history."
What did the Louisiana Purchase do? What year? Secured 828,000 sq miles of land from Mississippi to the Rocky Mts from France. It led to the western expansion.
What is the importance of the Erie Canal? What year was it opened? Opened a western shipping channel from NYC to the Great Lakes. Opened in 1825.
What year was the 1st tenement housing built in Manhattan? 1855
What was the "Homestead Act of 1862" Federal legislation that promoted western development by providing any family a 1/4 of section (160 acres). It was given to them if they lived there for 5 years and built a house, or it could be purchase it for $1.25 per acre after only 6 months.
What was the "Morrell Act"? Year? Federal legislation of 1862 that authorized land grants to the states so that they could use the proceeds to establish colleges in agriculture, engineering, and other "practical arts".
What was the 1st group to push for higher sanitary and housing standards in NYC? Year? New York Council Hygiene of the Citizen's Association in 1864
Explain what the Transcontinental Railroad was? Year? The connection of the western and eastern railroad lines (Union Pacific and Central Pacific) at Promontory Point, UT. May 10, 1869
What instigated the first tenement legislation in NYC? Year? How many tenement houses existed at that time? A 1867 report by the NY Council of Hygiene of the Citizen's Association. 15,000 tenements. Not effective due to lack of enforcement.
What are the major points addressed by the NYC tenement law of 1867? Required that all tenements have: 1) window or ventilation in every sleeping room, 2) a fire escape, 3) and "good and sufficient" water closets or privies, 4) be graded, drained, and connected to sewer
When was the 1st "Dumbbell" tenement built? What was it? Built in 1879 it is was a multifamily style of housing that was shaped like a dumbell and noted for its poor living environment (lack of air, light, and space).
What was the Public Health Movement? Advocated worker safety and public health as a result of poor factory conditions. Also addressed slum living conditions marked by open sewage in the streets & disease.
When was the 1st US Geological Survey Completed? 1879
What prompted the founding of the Sierra Club? Year? By whom? The need to promote, protect, and preserve the natural environment, 1892 by John Muir.
What was the General Land Law Revision Act? Year? Gave the US President power to create forest preserves by proclamation in 1891
Explain the significance of the Garden City Movement. Name the 1st 2 cities. Ebenezer Howard's city design which extolled the virtue of nature over cities and sought a return to pre-industrial small villages. Letchworth & Welwyn.
What book is created with starting the Garden City Movement? Year? Ebenezer Howard's "To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform," published in 1898.
What event propelled the City Beautiful Movement? Year? The design of the World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair), nicknamed the "White City", in 1893.
What was the first zoning ordinance? When? San Francisco passed the land use zoning ordinance on the location of obnoxious uses in 1867.
When was the first census conducted? Who did it? 1790 - 1792, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
What book is created with starting housing reforms? Jacob Riis's "How the Other Half Lives" publish in 1890 about NYC slums.
What was the "Forest Management Act"? Year? Federal legislation which allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves. 1891.
Created by: kathie_we