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history, civics and economics

Freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ Toleration Act
Explorer; 1492; Ship names Pinta Nina and Santa Maria; Queen Isabella of Spain gave him the ships Christopher Columbus
Landed in Mexico- Over ran the Aztecs Hernan Cortes
1494 treaty that divided land between Spain and Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas
1607 Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Area Jamestown
Lack of food, Indian attacks, disease, concentrated on looking for gold Reasons Jamestown Failed
Leader; tried to get Jamestown up and running John Smith
Upset with the church of England and King James-left England. Leaders-William Brewster, Jon Robinson and William Bradford Puritans
founded Rhode Island in 1636 Roger Williams
Quaker-founded Pennsylvania William Penn
Virginian colonists were given two headrights of 50 acres each, immigrant colonists who paid for their passage were given one headright and individuals would receive one headright each time they paid for the passage of another individual. Headright System
Increased dicision between wealthy land owners and working poor Consequence of Headright System
"Pot is set to boil" John Adams (Sons of Liberty)
State has equal representation chosen by state leg Senate
1787-Legislation would be Bicameral=two houses The Great Compromise
Based on population in state. Elected by the people House of Representatives
Senators now elected by the people 17th ammendment
No Free man shall be taken prisoner or destroyed-without lawful judgement of peers or by law of land. To none will we deny justice Magna Carta
Approves or vetos bills Executive Branch
Makes Treaties Executive Branch
Grants pardons and reprieves Executive Branch
Enforces laws Executive Branch
comissions officers to armed forces Executive Branch
Commander and Chief of armed forces Executive Branch
Head of State Executive Branch
Appoints or removes cabinet members Executive Branch
Divided into two houses (Senate and House of Representives) Congress
Congress Legislative Branch
can coin Money Legislative Branch
can maintain a military Legislative Branch
can declare war on other countries Legislative Branch
Regulates interstate and foreign commerce Legislative Branch
part of Legislative Branch that has the power to impeach House of Representatives
2-year terms House of Representatives
6 year terms Senate
part of Legislative Branch that has to power to remove an offical from office Senate
Supreme Court Judicial Branch
Judicial powers of the government Supreme Court
Federal Court Judicial Branch
Lower than Supreme Court-not created in the constitution Federal Court
Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied and whether they violate the constitution Judicial Review
Interprets laws Judicial Branch
Interpret the Constitution Judicial Branch
Judges have lifetime appointments Supreme Court
Group of electors selected by voters in each state Electoral College
Farmers wanted to incorporate systems within the government that would protect people and keep it from becoming a monarchy Reason for Electoral College
Wanted dirent elections for President and Vice President Federalist party
Opposed direct elections- feared general population lacked ability to choose best candidate Anti-Federalist party
Were against election by Congress-Feared Government would have too much power Anti-Federalist Party
the belief that the United States had a divinely inspired mission to expand spreading democracy and freedom Manifest Destiny
made it provitable to raise small stemmed cotton all over south, not just the coastline Cotton Gin
Caused price of slavery to rise Invention of the Cotton Gin
New England religious leader sait it was wrong; Abolition movement Slavery
Before signing the Constitution, the North and South over looked differences about it Slavery
Missouri applied for statehood-Southern Congressmen wanted it to be a slave state Missouri Compromise
said Missouri could be a slave state but the rest of the Louisiana Purchase was to be free Compromise of 1820
This idea gave each territory the power to decide for self--each state tried to get their way with force Popular Sovereignty--Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
not enforced until 1850 Compromise Fugitive Slave Laws
Black slave lived with master in Missouri (slave state)was taken to Wisconsin (free state)taken back to Missouri,master died.Sued to be free because he lived in a free state. Supreme court ruled against Scott saying Missouri Compromise unconstitutional Dred Scott Decision- 1857
1932-permitted federal reserve banks to accept wider variety of commercial paper as security for loans. Banking Act
minimum wage/maximum wage hours/rights to organize and bargain/business codes National Recovery Administration
Tennessee River flowed through seven states, dams, power plants,transmission lines, flood control, soil conservation, improved standard of living for millions Tennessee Valley Authority
Increased Federal Bureaucracy; increased Federal Government into daily lives; electricity for most rural farms and homes The New Deal
The Germans sank the Lusitanias-a British liner-128 Americans lost life Led to WWI
After Germans sank Lusitanias, Woodrow Wilson demanded that the Germans stop and apologize The Sussex Pledge to stop sinking merchant ships without warning
Torpedoed Housatonic; cunard liner torpedoed in Laconia killing two American women; torpedoed Vigilancia When Germans decided to go back on Sussex Pledge
Peace settlement that ended WWI Treaty of Versailes
Senate wanted American Sovereignty preserved at all costs League of Nations
the scene in of battle in France between Americans and Germans (2300 Americans died and buried there) Aisne-Marne
Black leader supported the war effort W.E.B. Du Bois
written by Woodrow Wilson when W.E.B. Du Bois supported the war effort. Said to put way differences and fight for democracy The Crisis
First 10 Amendments (1790) Bill of Rights
speech, press assembly, religion, petition government (5 freedoms) 1st amendment
no self-incrimination, jury trial, no double jeopardy, due process, sell property for money 5th amendment
The year the Republican and Federalist party formed 1791
(1792) runaway slaves myst be returned to owners Fugitive Slave Act
Missouri entered as a slave state-Maine as a free state. Slavery prohibited in the rest of Lousiana Purchase Missouri Compromise
admitted as a free state abolition of slave trade California
Fugitive slave act ammended enforcing penalties with regard to runaways Compromise of 1850
repeals Missouri Compromise-slaves allowed-popular sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act
territorial expansion(compromise 1850), fugitive slave act, Kansas Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case Events that fueled the pre civil war conflict over slavery
all slaves in areas rebellion against US shall be forever free Emancipation Proclimation
Equal Protection;due process 14th amendment
Seperate but equal-UPHELD seperate Plessy v. Ferguson
Federal Income Tax 16th amendment
Direct Election of Senators 17th amendment
Germany, Austria/Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire WWI Central powers
Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Italy, Belguim, Montenegro, Japan and later the US WWI Allied Powers
1917- WIB War Industries Board set up to oversee all aspects of industrial production and Distribution US Declares war in WWI
1918 Armistice ends WWI
Started when the heir to the throne of Austria was murdered. US tried to remain neutral; Germany bombed Lusitanian. When Germans refused to stop sinking ships, US declared war. Balanced tipped when US joined WWI
Germany made large concessions to allies and had to pay large penalties Treaty of Versailes
1920- womens right to vote 19th amendment
WWI caused economic imbalance; the rich got richer and the poor could not afford to buy goods Great Depression
ended prohibition 21st amendment
Primary purpose was to boost business growth and assist people The New Deal
Forbids the sale of munitions to enemies of the US Neutrality Act
WWII begins (US favors isolation) 1939
Great Britain and France declare war on Germany WWII
sale of arms they must pay and come and get them to prevent accrual of debt from foreign countries Cash and Carry
Japan alligned with Germany and Italy WWII
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor (1941) US declares war on Japan
$400 million in military aide to Greece and Turkey to keep communism away (1947) Truman Doctrine
Plan to rebuild Europe (1947) Marshall Plan
Russia in retaliation to US involvement in Cuba placed nuclear missiles in cuba. US blocked Russian ships from entering Cuba and demanded the missiles be removed. Treaty signed outlawing nuclear testing in the atmosphere Cuban Missile Crisis
Abolition of poll tax in federal elections 24th amendment
Mexican Immigrant who fought for equal pay for migrant workers (1970) Ceasar Chevez
Formed National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) later changed to United Farm Workers (UFW) Ceasar Chevez
Lead strike of California grape pickers to demand higher wages Ceasar Chevez
has sole right to organize field workers United Farm Workers
organizes strikes and boycotts to get higher wages from grape and lettuce growers United Farm Workers
(1980's) led strike to protest pesticides on grapes Ceasar Chevez
Right to vote for persons eighteen and older (1971) 27th amendment
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) Opened doors in China (1972)
Allows for greater representation of the people American two party system
Spanish explorer Columbus
Roe v. Wade Women's rights to early term abortion
Judicial Review-the authority to declare laws or actions of government officials unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison
Court overturned separate but equal (1954) Brown v. Board of Education
Government must use fair and just procedures when prosecuting a criminal defendant Due Process
Need a powerful central government because central government rather than states should control taxes and tariffs Federalist
Country needs an effective executive branch Federalist
nation needs central controls for economic and financial growth Federalist
needs national military to defend county Federalist
need national judiciary to avoid chaos Federalist
States should be subordinate Federalist
said that a strong central government would overwhelm the states and curtail individual freedoms Anti-Federalist
Felt they owed allegiance to states Anti-Federalist
Feared Presidency would become a monarchy or Congress and aristocracy Anti-Federalist
Loose association of colleagues among the states Articles of Confederation
Used to oppress Native Americans by Spanish-Conquistadors who were granted trusteeship over indigenous people.Known as encomiendas and they seized the land, increased taxes and forced Native Americans into slavery Encomienda
Document that threatened to enslave Native Americans if Spanish demands were not met Requerimeinto
Used to describe Spanish oppression of Native Americans Black Legend
Resulted from the persecution of the Puritans in the 1630's The Great Migration
First governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod William Bradford
Mass., Rhode Island, Conn., Bay colony (New England) Puritan settlement
Asserted British government right to impose taxes Declaratory Act
At the end of the Mexican War in 1848 the US acquired the territory that now comprises of New Mexico, Arizona, California and parts of Colorado, Utah and Nevada. Mexico also formally acknowledged that Texas was part of the US Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Industrial economy-opposed slavery North
Agricultural economy-relied on slavery South
Abolitionists wanted to revamp southern society to destroy any trace of the old slave holding culture. It was completed in 1877 and the former members of the Confederate States of America enjoined unfettered control of their own states Reconstruction of the South
surged because of the need for labor, industrial expansion demanded it. Immigration to the US
Decided to risk the gamble of its great offensive in 1918 partially because it needed to act before the full force of the US could reach full power in Europe. The allies defeated. Germany was left without the will or resources to continue the struggle Germany WWI
US worked to aide England and France with air materials WWII
No term limits. Elected every 2 years. Membership could be changed entirely in one election House of Representatives
Only 1/3 is up for re election every 2 years Senate
Insisted on having the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution Anti-Federalists
(Ohio and Mississippi Valley)created huge ceremonial mounds where they buried family and local elites. Adena and Hopewell Peoples
The gradual shift from hunting and gathering to cultivating basic food crops that occurred world wide form 7000-9000 Agricultural Revolution
(Present Day New Mexico) created a network of irrigation canals; constructed a transportation system Anasazi Culture
Built vast cities;formed government bureaucracies;developed hieroglyphics and an accurate calendar. Mayan and Toltec of Central Mexico
aggressive; ruled by force; conquered great cities in the valley of Mexico; human sacrifice; believed that the blood of their victims possessed extraordinary healing powers Aztecs
supplemented farming with hunting and gathering;Atlantic coast area; lived off of land best they could;winter forced families to disperse Eastern Woodland Culture
Most determined their place in society through kinship Native Americans
The exchange of plants,animals, culture and disease between Europe and America throughout the era of exploration. Native Americans lacked natural immunity to many common European diseases and when exposed, died by the millions Colombian Exchange
Communicated with Europeans through sign language Native Americans
Europeans concluded that they held them in high regards and often viewed them as Gods Native Americans
The death of so many Native Americans decrease the supply of indigenous laborers Reason for the emergence of slavery
rich in political, religious and cultural diversity Sub Saharan West Africa
The major West African States when Europeans arrived Mali, Benin and Kongo
First to reach West African coast by sail. They were searching for gold and slaves Portugal
Required Europeans to pay tolls and other fees and restricted the foreign traders to conducting their business in small forts or castles located at the mouths of the major rivers. West Africa
Strong armies and deadly diseases prevented the Europeans from moving into the interior regions West Africa
America was an extension of Africa rather than Europe until in the late 19th century Result of Slavery
16th century Spanish Adventurers often of noble birth, who subdued the Native Americans and created the Spanish Empire in the New World Conquistadors
16th century religious movement to reform and challenge the spiritual authority of the Roman Catholic Church, associated with figures such as Martin Luther and John Calvin Protestant Reformation
England's first colony Ireland
Her subjects took the first halting steps toward colonizing the New World Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603)
Founded Roanoke Virginia Sir Walter Raleigh
Replacement of James II by William and Mary ans English Monarchs in 1688, making the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain. American colonists celebrated this moment as victory for the rule of law over despotism The Glorious Revolution
Virginia and Maryland Chesapeake colony
Business Enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading activity and funding for sustaining colonies Joint Stock Company
An elective representative assembly in colonial Virginia. It was the first example of representative government in English colonies House of Burgess
Individuals who contracted to serve a master for a set number of years in exchange for the cost of boat transportation to America. The dominant for of labor in Chesapeake colonies before slavery Indentured Servants
Catholics seized control from Protestants; Charles I named Maryland after the Queen 1655
Member of reformed Protestant sect in Europe and America that insisted on remaining vestiges of Catholicism from popular religious practice Puritan
1648; first alphabetized code of law printed in English (Massachusetts Bay). The code clearly stated the colonist's rights and responsibilities as citizen of the commonwealth. Laws of Liberties
It engendered the public trust in government and discouraged magistrates from the arbitrary exercise of authroity Laws of Liberties
Drew people of highly independent of mind. The colony's broad toleration attracted many men and women who held orthodox religious beliefs Rhode Island
members of a radical religious group formally known as Society of Friends, that rejected formal theology and stressed each person's "inner light", a spiritual guide to righteousness Quakers
New Framework of government that established a unicameral, or one house, legislative and gave the representatives the right to initiate Legislation. Also provided for the political separation of the three lower colonies. Charter of Liberties
Wealthy planters relied on laborers who were not free as well as slaves Chesapeake Colony
First landed in Virginia in 1619 African slaves
In the mid 18th century, they were a political faction that dominated parliament. They opposed to royal influence in government and wanted to increase the control and influence of Parliament. Whigs
Principle that emphasized the power of parliament to govern colonial affairs as the preeminent authority Parliamentary Sovereignty
Specifically designed to generate revenue. (Sugar Act) It instituted tougher collection methods and expanded the jurisdiction of the vice-admiralty courts Revenue Act of 1764
Also known as the intolerable acts, the 4 pieces of Legislation passed by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party that were meant to punish the colonies. Coercive Acts
Very important for Catholics. Americans felt their rights to settle in the region were being denied Quebec Act
Feb 6, 1778- Presented by the French to America. Established Commercial Relations between France and the United States. Tactfully accepted the existence of a new independent republic Treaty of Amity and Commerce
England realized that the French Navy posed a serious challenge to the over extended British Fleet. What had become a colonial rebellion suddenly became a world conflict, a continuation of the great wars for empire of the late 17th century French Revolution
Tecumseh (Shawnee leader) fought to keep land for Indians. America won. War of 1812
an industrial economy Jefferson America
His political moderation helped hasten the demise of the Federalist party Jefferson
Southern small land holders who owned no slaves and who lived primarily in the foothills of Appalachian and Ozark Mountains. These farmers were self reliant and grew mixed crops, Yeoman
Organized in 1848, this 3rd party proposed to exclude slavery from federal territories and nominated former president Van Buren in the election year. Most became Republicans Free Soil Party
Opposed to the expansion of slavery into the western territories Republican Party
1793 invaded the National convention during the French Revolution, drove out Girondists and gave the mountain complete control Sans-Culottes
They combined moral reform, religious fervor and a vision of egalitarian society-Revolt against China's Manchu Dynasty. Inspired by quasi Christian ideas- they took advantage of the weakened dynasty Taiping Rebellion
The ideological and geographical struggle between the United States and its allies that began after WWII and lasted until the dissolution of the USSR in 1989 The Cold War
Basic difference in ideology; Soviet Unions attempt to extend its control westward in to Europe and South into the Middle East; Britain's role to restrain Russia, but Britain's power waned; America Britain because they were more powerful Causes of Cold War
To replace all multiparty governments behind the Iron Curtain with thoroughly Communist regimes under his control Stalin's response to the Marshall Plan
Organized Communist Information Bureau dedicated to spreading revolutionary communism throughout the world Stalin
Mao was disappointed with the results of collectivization in Russia. He created huge communes by using village based collective farms. Was a huge failure-resulted in famine and death China's Great Leap Forward
Used tariffs to shield its markets while making use of cheap labor to flood foreign markets with goods and build up its currency reserves Factors that fueled China's economic growth
Farmers tied to their collective or village; Cities were closed to those without resident permits; City dwellers (members of units) were provided with jobs, housing and such China under Mao's control
Controls loosened; police less active; censorship reduced; units were diminished; the market economy placed a premium on individual decisions and initiatives China under Deng's control
(Truman) Outlawed specific union practices and it permitted the president to invoke an eighty-day cooling off period to delay strikes that might endanger national health or safety Taft-Hartley Act
Asserted the principle that government was responsible for the state of the economy and created the council of economic Adviser's to guide the president Employment Act
Created by: racm
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