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Chapter 7 Cells


Anatomy is the study of the form and structure of an organism
physiology is the study of the processes of living organisms, or why and how they work
pathophysiology is the study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes
protoplasm the basic substance of all life
cell are microscopic structures that carry on all the functions of life
cell membrane the outer protective covering of the cell;semipermeable
cytoplasm a semifluid inside the cell but outside the nucleus; site for all chemical reactions
organelles cell structures that help a cell to function, are located in the cytoplasm.
nucleus a mass in the cytoplasm; brain of the cell
nucleolus one or more small, round bodies located inside the nucleus, and important in cell reproduction
chromatin located in the nucleus and made of DNA and protein
gene the structures that carry inherited characteristics
genome is the total mass of genetic instruction humans inherit from their parents.
centrosome located in the cytoplasm and near the nucleus; create an even division of the chromosomes in the two new cells.
mitochondria rod-shaped organelles located throughout the cytoplasm; called furnaces or powerhouses of the cell because they break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
golgi apparatus a stack of membrane layers located in the cytoplasm; produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
endoplasmic reticulum fine network of tubular structures located in the cytoplasm; allows for the transport of materials in and out of the nucleus and also aids in the synthesis and storage of proteins.
vacuoles pouchlike structures found throughtout the cytoplasm filled with a watery substance, stored food, or waste products
lysosomes oval or round bodies found throughout the cytoplasm and contain digestive enzymes
pinocytic vesicles pocketlike folds in the cell membrane that allow large molecules to enter the cell
mitosis a form of asexual reproduction
meiosis sex cells divide
stem cells have the ability to transform themselves int any of the body's specialized cells and perform many different functions
tissue when cells of the same type join together for a common purpose
dehydration insufficient fluids
edema swelling of the tissues when there is too much tissue fluid
epithelial tissue covers the surface of the body and main tissue in the skin
connective tissue supporting fabric of organs and other body parts
nerve tissue made up of neurons and contro and coordinates body activities by transmitting messages throughout the body
muscle tissue produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers
organ two or more tissues joined together to perform a specific function
system organs and other body parts joined together to perform a particular function
Created by: yerany