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three types of RNA tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA
adenine pairs with thymine
guanine pairs with cytosine
dna nitrogen bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
rna nitrogen bases adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
enzyme helicase unwinds and separates the 2 DNA strands by breaking the weak hydrogen bonds
enzyme dna polymerase new nucleotides form bonds with the existing ones
enzyme dna ligase joins the Okazaki fragments to form a continuous DNA strand
nucleus where dna replication takes place
5' to 3' dna replication direction
nucleotide monomer of nucleic acid
dna specifies traits by dictating protein synthesis
proteins the links between genotype and phenotype
molecular chain of command DNA in the nucleus to RNA and RNA in the cytoplasm to protein
transcription the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
translation the synthesis of proteins under the direction of RNA
sequence of nucleotides in dna provides a code for constructing a protein
protein construction requires a conversion of a nucleotide sequence to an amino acid sequence
triplet code a set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
codons the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
polypeptide chain long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
are written dna and rna as a series of codons the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain...
64 How many codons are possible?
genetic code the amino acid translations of each of the nucleotide triplets
three nucleotides specify one amino acid
sixty one codons correspond to amino acids
AUG codes are for methionine and signals the start of transcription
three "stop" codons signal the end of translation
the three "stop" codons UGA, UAA, UAG
stop codon codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
start codon codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
transcription of a gene steps initiation, elongation, and termination (in order)
initiation an mRNA molecule binds to a small ribosomal subunit, and a special tRNA binds to mRNA at the start codon
elongation amino acids are added one by one to the first amino acid
termination when the ribosome reaches a stop codon, the completed polypeptide is freed from the last tRNA, and the ribosome splits back into its separate subunits
Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes amino acid sequences and ;conveys genetic messages from DNA to the translation machinery of the cell
transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules function as an interpreter, converting the genetic message of mRNA into the language of proteins
anticodon group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
initiation. the start codon reads AUG and codes for methionine; the first tRNA has the anticodon UAC
genetics the scientific study of heredity
Gregor Mendel father of modern genetics
heritable factors what Mendel called genes / parents pass on...
character a heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as flower color
trait each variant for a character, such as purple or white flowers
true-breeding term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
hybrid offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
hybridization breeding technique that involves crossing organisms that are not the same to bring together the best traits of both organisms
hybridization theory two+ pure atomic orbitals can be mixed to form two or more new hybrid atomic orbitals that are identical.
F1 generation the first generation of offspring that comes from a cross of two organisms
F2 generation offspring of the F1 generation
offspring a person's child or children
monohybrid cross a cross between two individuals differing in a single character
allele different versions of genes that cause variations in inherited characters
alleles for each character, an organism inherits two _____ (one from each parent)
homozygous an organism that has two of the same alleles for a trait (BB, TT, bb, tt)
hetereozygous organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait (Bb, Tt)
phenotype an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
genotype an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
law of segregation a sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited character because allele pairs separate (segregate) from each other during the production of gametes
allele pairs the fusion of gametes at fertilization creates...
punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles from a genetic cross
locus location of a gene on a chromosome
homologous chromosomes pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes
for a pair of homologous chromosomes alleles of a gene reside at the same locus
homozygous individuals have the same allele on both homologues
heterozygous individuals individuals have a different allele on each homolog
dihybrid cross a mating of parental varieties that differ in two characters
phenotypic ratio the ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross
law of independent assortment the allele a gamete receives for one gene does not influence the allele received for another gene
pedigree shows the inheritance of a trait in a family through multiple generations, demonstrates dominant or recessive inheritance, and can also be used to deduce genotypes of family members
dominant an allele that is always expressed
recessive an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
central dogma protein synthesis
ribosomes transcription takes place in...
mutation any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
frameshift mutation shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
nonsense mutation a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
missense mutation (conservative) changes amino acid to another with the same properties; result in an amino acid change
missense mutation (nonconservative) changes amino acid to another with the same properties; result in an amino acid change that has different properties than the wild type
non-mendelian genetics inheritance patterns that express incomplete dominance
incomplete dominance the blending of two alleles; one allele is not completely dominant over another
codominance both alleles are completely and distinctly expressed, no blending
multiple alleles more than two possible alleles exist for one trait
polygenes one trait is controlled by 3 or more genes
sex-linked traits traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes, (much easier for males to have recessive trait)
polygenic many genes
karyotype a display or image of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
nondisjunction failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis
pedigree square male
pedigree circle female
pedigree shaded shape recessive
pedigree unshaded shape dominant
pedigree half-shaded shape carrier of a trait
dihybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes
monohybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous with respect to a specific gene
(p generation) parental generation the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
point mutation mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
gene expression process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
DNA replication the process of making a copy of DNA
leading strand starts at 3' and easily goes to 5'
lagging strand takes place in segments
plasma membrane a selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
hydrophilic attracted to water
hydrophobic water hating
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
phospholipids have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
lipid energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
permeable able to be passed or soaked through
solutions a mixture where substances are distributed evenly
solute the substance that is dissolved
solvent the substance in which the solute dissolves
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell, high to low
active transport movement of solutes against a concentration gradient; requires that the cell use energy, low to high
3 types of passive transport diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
solute and solvent makes a solution
equilibrium where molecules are uniformly distributed but continue to move randomly
simple diffusion movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis diffusion of water across a membrane
types of osmosis hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic
hypertonic when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
hypotonic when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
isotonic when the concentration of two solutions is the same
isotonic solution the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal
hypertonic environment concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside the cell, water will move outside the cell...the cell will shrink and die
hypotonic environment concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside the cell, water will move inside the cell...the cell will swell, or burst, and die
facilitated diffusion the diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane; glucose moves in and out of cells
channel proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane
types of active transport endocytosis and exocytosis
types of endocytosis phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated
phagocytosis occurs when undissolved solids enter a cell; the plasma membrane wraps around the solid material and engulfs it, forming a vesicle
phagocytic cells attack and engulf bacteria in the manner
pinocytosis occurs when dissolved materials enter a cell;the plasma membrane folds inward to form a channel allowing the liquid to enter;the plasma membrane closes off the channel, encircling the liquid inside a vesicle
receptor-mediated endocytosis when specific molecules bind to specialized "receptors" (proteins) in the plasma membrane; the membrane, the receptors, and the ligands fold inward forming vesicles
ligands a molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
exocytosis process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their content to the outside of the cell
cell transport how things move in and out of the cell through the cell membrane
mitochondria supply energy to the cell
organelles specialized structures that work together inside a cell
compound microscope played the biggest role in the discovery of cells by early scientists
prokaryotes are unicellular
lysosomes and organelle involved in breaking down lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, damage organelles and bacteria
order of cell cycle interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
cells only come from... other cells dividing
interphase where the cell spends most of its life
What happens in the lysogenic cycle? virus inject nucleic acid into the host cell, and the nucleic acid integrates into the host cell DNA, and stay dormant for a long time
What happens in the lytic cycle? virus quickly kills the host cell
prokaryotic cell does not have... a nucleus
plant cells have cell wall main difference between plant and animal cells
interphase. (step one),the resting phase
prophase 1 (meiosis) (step two),the chromosomes pair up, and the nuclear envelope breaks down, crossing-over occurs
metaphase 1 (meiosis) (step three),pairs of homologous chromosomes move to the center of the cell, and attached to spindles
anaphase 1 (meiosis) (step four),chromosomes separate
telophase 1 and cytokinesis (meiosis) (step five),chromosomes gather at the poles of the cells, the cytoplasm divides, and the cell pinches in the middle
prophase (step one) chromosomes are visible and more tightly coiled, nuclear envelope disappears,mitotic spindle begins to form as microtubules rapidly grow from the centrosomes
centrosomes region where cells microtubules are initiated
microtubules spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure
metaphase (step two) chromosomes line up across center, spindle fibers attach to center of each chromosome
anaphase (step three) chromosomes split, each half is pulled to opposite of cell
telophase (step four) chromosomes cluster in the center of each new cell, nuclear membrane begins to form, cells begin to separate
cytokinesis (step five) division of the cytoplasm, two daughter cells form
daughter cells the two new cells that result from mitosis and cytokinesis, have the same number of chromosomes as parent cell
interphase* (step six) cell grows and develops, towards the ends DNA doubles
homologous pair a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar structures and gene values
chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
somatic cells any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells
somatic cells have... 46 chromosomes forming 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes
homologous chromosomes are matched in... length, centromere position, and staining pattern
gene a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
gametes sex cells, egg or sperm
.gametes said to be haploid cells because each cell has a single set of chromosomes
the human life cycle begins when.. sperm fuses with egg
fertilization process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
zygote fertilized egg, diploid
mitosis of a zygote... generates all the somatic cells into adult form
meiosis a type of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms
prokaryotic cell a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
eukaryotic cell cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
virus a tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell, only last within cell
capsid outer protein coat of a virus
capsomer a subunit of the virus capsid shaped as a triangle or disc
endosymbiosis theory early eukaryotic cells were formed from simpler prokaryotes
endosymbiosis a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
What did the host cell receive from its endosymbiont? energy that it can use
endosymbiont a cell that lives within a host cell
What did the endosymbiont receive from the host cell? a safe place to live
bacteria most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
archaea prokaryotes that often live in Earth's extreme environments
eukarya have eukaryotic cells and include; single-celled protists and multicellular fungi, animals, and plants
.virus has only DNA or RNA core, capsid
there is no cure for a virus
a virus can be prevented
plant cell has... large vacuole, chloroplast, nucleus to the side, cell membrane,no centrioles, and cell wall
animal cell has... small vacuole, no chloroplast, nucleus in the center, no cell membrane, centrioles, and no cell wall
prokaryotic cells have... no nucleus, small ribosomes, and free floating DNA
eukaryotic cells have... a nucleus, large ribosomes, organized DNA
spikes on virus penetrate host cell and cause infection
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
permeable membrane a membrane that allows for diffusion of certain solutes and water
cancerous cell form because of... uncontrollable cell growth forming masses called tumors
tumor mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue
homeostasis A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
cells maintain homeostasis by... controlling the movement of substances across the cell membrane
What is the ultimate goal for a cell to reach? equilibrium
ATP molecule that provides energy for active transport
vacuole a small membrane sac used to transport substances during exocytosis and endocytosis
semi-permeable membranes that allow some substances through but not others
How does a typical virus get inside the cell? capsid proteins bind to receptors on the surface of a cell and "trick" the cell into allowing it inside
What occurs when viruses get inside cells? It copies itself and then burst out of the cell
What would happen to a virus that never came in contact with a living cell? The virus would be dead because viruses are not living unless attached to a host.
nucleolus found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.
endoplasmic reticulum a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
golgi apparatus a system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
synthesis combining parts into a whole
centromere area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
spindle fiber one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
diploid an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
haploid an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
chromatid one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
chromatin granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
photosynthesis process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
chlorophyll green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
cellular respiration process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
chemical equation for photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
chemical equation for cellular respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
enzyme a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
scientific method a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
carbohydrate elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (1:2:1 ratio, CHO)
monosaccharide (glucose) carbohydrate monomer
carbohydrate function immediate energy source, help cell wall, break down sugars giving energy
nucleic acid monomer nitrogen base, sugar (s carbon ring), phosphate
nucleic acid element carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus (CHONP)
nucleic acid function genetic material/info
purines double ring, adenine and guanine, nitrogen base
pyrimidines single ring, thymine and cytosine, nitrogen base
lipid molecules carbon, hydrogen, oxygen; hydrophobic molecules
no monomer lipids have...
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
lipid function store long term energy, form important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
lipids contain glycerol, fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids (at room temp.)
protein monomer amino acids (20)
protein function structure, enzymes, control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes,import cellular structures, fight disease
protein elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (CHON)
protein shapes primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
enzymes... increase rate of reaction without being consumed by reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to begin
shape specific enzymes are...
it is broken down in the presence of water everytime a macromolecule is broken down ...
activation cofactors, coenzymes
inhibition competitive, allosteric
competitive enzyme block substances and reduce enzyme activity
noncompetitive enzyme bind to enzyme ,not on activation site, change shape of active site preventing substance from binding, goes in allosteric site
protein enzymes shape determines function
a certain favorable temperature enzyme activation increases after...
DNA has... double helix
DNA sugar deoxyribose
DNA nitrogen bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
base pairing chargaff's law that DNA from any cell of any organism should have a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio (base pair rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine should be equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine should be equal to thymi
RNA has... single strand
RNA sugar ribose
RNA nitrogen bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
mRNA (messenger RNA) carries genetic info from DNA to ribosomes
tRNA (transfer RNA) transfers or carries amino acids to protein building ribosomes
rRNA (ribosome RNA) an integrated part of ribosomes and are involved in assembling protein molecules
RNA ribonucleic acid
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
enzyme cycle step one the enzyme is available with an empty active site
enzyme cycle step two substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit
enzyme cycle step three substrate is converted to products
enzyme cycle step four the products are released
organic molecule a molecule containing carbon that is a part of or produced by living systems
macromolecule a very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules
fermentation process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
thylakoid a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
stroma the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
calvin cycle reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
stomata a microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
reactant a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
light independent set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light, dark reaction calvin cycle
light dependant converts light into chemical energy, takes place in thylakoid
hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
independent variable the thing that will be changed in each experiment
dependant variable the variable that relies on the independent variable
conclusion a summary based on evidence or facts
variable a factor that can change in an experiment
observation information obtained through the senses
polymer large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
glycerol a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon, combines fatty acids to make lipids
coenzyme a non protein compound that is necessary for the functioning of an enzyme.
cofactor a non protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme
active site the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
glycolysis the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid
cytoplasm glycolysis takes place in the...6
Created by: tiiff_an.y
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