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Chapter 7

TermDefinition
Religion System of beliefs that order life in terms of ultimate priorities and direct behavior and practices in reference to achieving the ultimate priorities.
Secularism Indifference to or rejection of religion.
Monotheistic Religion Belief in one god.
Polytheistic Religion Belief in many gods.
Animistic Religions Traditional or indigenous religion where animals or objects are significant.
Universalizing Religions A religion believed by its followers to have universal application and to which followers actively seek converts.
Ethnic religions A religion into which people are born and whose followers do not actively seek converts.
Hinduism Religion based on a range of beliefs, including karma and reincarnation. Hinduism began around 2000 BCE and does not have a single founder. Hearth in Indus Valley (present-day Pakistan).
Caste system Social structure of South Asian society dating to the Indus civilization (2500-1800 BCE) where people are born into their place in society.
Buddhism Religion based on the belief that humans can reach enlightenment by following the middle path. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism in the 6th century BCE. Hearth in Lumbini and Sarnath (present-day Nepal/India).
Shintoism Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Feng Shui Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities. Structures and objects are positioned to channel flow of sheng-chi (“life-breath”) in favorable ways.
Confucianism Political philosophy that values benevolence, loyalty, and diligence within the structure of the family and the government. Developed from the writings of Confucius in 6th to 5th centuries BCE. Hearth in China.
Judaism Religion based on the belief in one God who revealed himself to and entered a covenant with Abraham. Judaism dates to 2000 BCE. Hearth in present-day Israel.
Diaspora Dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place, either voluntarily or by force.
Zionism Movement for the establishment of a national homeland for Jews in the land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
Christianity Religion based on the belief that Jesus was born as the son of God, was crucified, and was resurrected to atone for peoples’ sins. Developed out of Judaism in 1st century CE. Hearth in Bethlehem and Jerusalem (present-day Palestine/Israel).
Roman Catholic Church One of three major branches of Christianity (together with the Eastern Orthodox and Protestant).
Eastern Orthodox Church One of three major branches of Christianity (together with Roman Catholic and Protestant).
Protestant One of three major branches of Christianity (together with Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic).
Islam Religion based on the belief in one God who revealed himself to the prophet Muhammad. Islam dates to the 7th century CE. Hearth in Mecca and Medina in present-day Saudi Arabia.
Sunni Sect of Islam that believes Muhammad’s successor did not need to be a blood relative of Muhammad.
Shi’ite Sect of Islam that believes Muhammad’s successor needed to be a blood relative of Muhammad. Found commonly in and around Iran.
Indigenous religions Belief systems and philosophies practiced and traditionally passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group.
Sacred sites A place infused with religious or spiritual meaning.
Hajj Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Interfaith boundaries Boundaries between the world’s major faiths.
Intrafaith boundaries Boundaries between sects within a single major faith.
Religious fundamentalism Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy.
Religious extremism Religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence.
Jihad Commonly translated as “Holy War,” jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu’ran.
Created by: pl251121
 

 



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