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Holy of the holies Holy of the holies - The most sacred chamber where the image of sacred stone of the god was kept.
Urns Urns - Ornamental vases made of clay, where the Phoenicians buried the dead.
Colonies Colonies - Permanent settlements built by Phoenicians that eventually turned into cities, built on the coast of northern Africa.
Dido Dido - The Phoenician princess that at first, ruled Tyre, but then got overthrown by her brother. Then, she fled north and built the city of Carthage.
Carthage Carthage - A Phoenician city built by Dido, that was great for trading and eventually ended up being, “Mediterranean Power”
Describe the Phoenicians’ religion. Where was it originally practiced? The Phoenicians’ religion had beliefs of many gods that were related to nature. The religion also had a huge part in life after death. It was first practiced on hills and under trees. Then, they practiced in temples.
Describe the typical Phoenician temple. The typical Phoenician temple had an entrance hall, a main hall and a holy of the holies.
How were the Phoenicians’ burial rituals influenced by their contact with the Egyptians? The rituals were influenced by their contact with the Egyptians because the Egyptians influenced them to wrap the bodies in linen and place them in stone coffins, (burry and mummify them)
On what continent was Carthage located? When was it founded? What modern-day country is located here? Carthage was located on the northern coast of Africa. It was founded in 814 B.C. Carthage is in present day Tunisia
What is considered the Phoenicians most important gift to other civilizations? Why was it important to the Phoenicians? The Phoenicians’ most important gift to other civilizations was the idea of an alphabet. It was important because it allowed Phoenicians to communicate with other people of different nationalities. They wrote down there trades.
Describe the Canaanite system of writing. Why do you think the Phoenicians adopted it? Canaanite system of writing was a 22 letter alphabet using pictures as letters instead of using pictures as whole words. The Ph used it because it was easier to write records and it allowed them to speak with people from other nations when trading.
Canaan Canaan- The land bridge that connects Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is now known as Israel and Lebanon
Phoenicians Phoenicians-The people that lived in northern Canaan
Canaanites Canaanites-herders that wandered from pasture to pasture. They came from the desert south and east of Canaan
Philistines Philistines- traders and ship builders that came from the eastern Mediterranean sea near Greece.
Treaties Treaties- agreements between states or countries in which the Phoenicians promised to supply free shipment of goods in return for Phoenician independence. In return, they received Phoenician independence.
Tyre Tyre- the largest of the Phoenician city-state. A famous cloth-dying (purple) center.
Byblos Byblos- independent city-state that made papyrus (paper). Byblos is the Greek word for “book.
Beirut Beirut- City-state that became the capital of Lebanon.
Identify the ancient land that was located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. What modern-day countries are currently located there? Who passed through this region in ancient times and why? Canaan was a land bridge that connects Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is now Lebanon and Israel. The land was known as Canaan. Soldiers, shepherds, and the merchants passed through this area.
What two groups settled in this region? In what ways were these two groups alike? Phoenicians and Hebrews settled in Canaan. They were alike because they both were peaceful and believed in trade and learning.
Where did the Phoenicians live? How have historians learned about the lives of these people? The Phoenicians lived in the northern part of Canaan. Other city-states and the Hebrews wrote about them in the Bible.
What two groups comprised the Phoenician people? How were these two groups different? Canaanites from the desert and the Philistines from the east. They’re different because Canaanites were herders and Philistines were traders and ship builders.
Give two reasons why the Phoenicians became sea merchants? 1. Phoenicians didn’t have enough land for food 2. Phoenicians had lots of cedar wood for building ships
How did the Phoenicians’ use of peace treaties benefit themselves as well as their neighbors? The peace treaties guaranteed that the Phoenicians would get independence and the people they traded with would get free shipment of goods
How did the Phoenicians refer to themselves? How did others refer to them? Phoenicians referred to themselves as their city-state name, but the Phoenicians would refer to themselves by their city-state names (Tyre, Beirut, Sidon, Byblos).
Why was Byblos an appropriate name for the Phoenician city? Byblos was an appropriate name because it means “book” and they created lots of papyrus (paper).
What is the translation of “Phoenician”? Why was this a fitting name for this group of people? Phoenician means people who make purple cloth which was appropriate because they made purple cloth.
Name four large Phoenician city-states. Why didn’t they always get along? Tyre, Beirut, Byblos, Sidon. They didn't always get along because they searched for more profit which led to jealousy because they wanted to trade more.
Created by: Akshar
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