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Chapter 20

asylum seekers those whose claim to refugee status have not been validated
cancer cluster a geographic area with high levels of cancer within its population
carrying capacity the amount of people that can live in a given area considering amount of available resources
climate change long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity
concentric zone model a model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones
cornucopian theory a theory that asserts human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources in a growing popluation
demographic transition theory a theory that describes fours stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development
demography the study of population
e-waste the disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics
environmental racism the burdening of economically and socially disadvantaged communities with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards
environmental sociology the sociological subfield hat addresses the relationship between humans the environment
exurbs communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by resident of high socioeconomic status
fertility rate a measure noting the actual number of chidren born
fracking hydraulic fracturing a method used to recover gas and oil from shale by drilling down into the earth and directing a high-pressure mixture of water, sand and proprietary chemicals into the rock
gentrification the entry of upper and middle class residents to city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent
human ecology a functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment
internally displaced person someone who fled his or her home while remaining inside the country's border
Malthusian theory a theory asserting that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventive checks (measures to reduce fertility)
megalopolis a large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs
metropolis the area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs
mortality rate a measure of the number of people in a population who die
NIMBY "Not In My Back Yard", the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will affect them directly
pollution the introduction of cantaminants into an environment at levels that are damaging
population composition a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates
population pyramid a graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex
refugee an individual who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape ware, persecution, or natural disaster
sex ration the ratio of men to women in a given population
suburbs the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute
urban sociology the subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization
urbanization the study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities
white flight the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs
zero population growth a theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration
Created by: Gdefillipo



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