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Ancient River Civ.

Mesopotamia A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies.
silt A mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks
irrigate To bring water to a dry place in order to grow crops
specialization the development of skills in a specific kind of work
scribes people trained to write using the earliest forms of writing before literacy was widespread
stylus A pointed instrument used by ancient peoples for writing on clay tablets
import bring (goods or services) into a country from abroad for sale.
export A good or service produced in the home country and sold in another country.
barter Exchange goods without involving money.
surplus more than what is needed or used
literature written work such as fiction, poetry, or drama
city-states a self-governing city that also controls surrounding villages
Empires a large territory or a number of territories under a single authority, such as an emperor
ziggurat an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower made up of a stepped pyramid with outside staircases and a temple at the top
polytheistic believers in many gods
social class The system of relationships among groups of people in a society, such as a class system.
polytheistic believers in many gods
social class The system of relationships among groups of people in a society, such as a class system.
monsoons seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
citadel fortresses that sit high above a city
kiln an oven used for making pottery
granaries buildings for storing grain
plateau an area of high, flat land
arid very dry
nomadic wandering, moving about from place to place
monotheism belief in only one god
commandment a rule that God wanted the Israelites to follow
navigation art of steering a ship from place to place
cultural diffusion The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
maritime relating to the sea
levee a wall of earth built to prevent a river from flooding its banks
cataract a large waterfall
astronomy the study of stars and planets
architecture the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings
mummification the preservation of dead bodies by embalming and wrapping them in cloth
bureaucracy Government organization composed of appointed officials
papyrus A long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds used in Ancient Egypt
hieroglyphics Egyptian writing that involved using pictures to represent words
Cuneiform the world's first system of writing developed by the Sumerians
surveying finding the size, shape, and position of an area of land
Vedas Collections of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
currency money
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