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Written - Flash Cards

When an error is made it is appropriate to apologize then correct the mistake. True
What are some concerns while interpreting? Accurately maintaining the message without adding or omitting information or making inaccurate cultural adjustments. Conveying the proper intent of the speaker by expressing excitement with excited, sadness when sad, etc. and using proper registers.
When interpreting the target language should be in ASL. Aspects of this structure include: Eliminating the use of English signs/word order as well as initialized signs or English words on the mouth. Maintaining eye contact and referring to the speaker as "I." Making proper use of space and using CL's.
Why is it important not to mouth the English words? It prohibits the interpreter from using proper mouth morphemes and facial expressions which can skew the message.
The 1st permanent school opens in 1817 in Hartford, Connecticut called Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Institution for Deaf and Dumb Persons. Today it is known as the: American School for the Deaf
What were the distinct aspects of the 1st Deaf School? It was residential because it was too far for students to commute. It received funding from the state of Connecticut as well as the federal government. The teachers were Deaf and taught through sign language.
Laurent Clerc was expected to do what at the American School? Teach
Who founded Gallaudet University? Edward Minor Gallaudet.
When is fingerspelling primarily used? In ASL to represent proper nouns, specific terms, English words that do not have a lexical equivalent and technical terms.
What percentage of overall vocabulary is fingerspelled? 7-10%
True or False: Lexicalized fingerspelled words always include all the letters of the word. False
Characteristics of lexicalized fingerspelling include: Letter deletions, special movement, and palm orientation.
What is a classifier? Handshapes that represent a noun nd indicate the location and possible action of that noun.
The three founding fathers of the American School were: Cogswell, Gallaudet, and Clerc
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet became involved with the American School how? When he met his neighbor's deaf daughter, Alice Cogswell
Who traveled back to Europe in search of methods for teaching the deaf and who did they bring back? Gallaudet brought back Laurent Clerc
Who welcomed Gallaudet in Paris and incoved him to join him at the Royal Institute for the Deaf? Abbe Sicard
Who was Laurent Clerc? A French man who knew very little English that came back to New England to help with the American School.
What is the proper protocol for using a classifier? Identify the classifier by fingerspelling the word first and then continue using the classifier only. When the fingerspelled word is the main focus, fingerspell it first then use a classifier to explain it and continue to fingerspell the word.
Sometimes words have several meaning or cannot be replaced with a classifier, therefore a sign is used in place of that word. For example the sign HOME is used for the word H-A-B-I-T-A-T, This is called: Flagging
True or False: It is okay to make up a temporary abbreviation for a particular situation. False
What do you do when you are transliterating something with names that do not have name signs? Create an arbitrary name sign to use during that situation
Arbitrary name signs can be created where? In the neutral space, at a single location on the body, or at duel locations on the body.
Name signs fall under what types of categories? Arbitrary and Descriptive
What are initialized signs? Signs that represent an English word based on traditional signs that use the 1st letter of a word.
What should one avoid when using initialized signs? Shaking the 1st letter of the word in a neutral space - "shaking K"
What BEST denotes professionalism? Subscribing to a higher standard of behavior than that motivated purely by profit and holding others interests above your own.
What is expected of professionals? Know how to do their work, show up to the task prepared, and trustworthy. Deals with sensitive information in a discrete manner. Avoids emotional involvement of clientele.
What are ethics? Behavioral standards - a set of principles that defines what is judged appropriate or inappropriate, right or wring and is generally, referred to as the Code of Ethics or the Hippocratic Oath in the medical field.
Why do we have the Code of Ethics? To deter from inappropriate behavior by informing what behavior is and is not accepted and discipling those that stray in order to protect the public from immoral behavior. Also, to promote professional development.
According to the Code of Ethics, an interpreter should: Render the message faithfully and confidentially, remain unbiased by not counseling clients and act in a manner appropriate to the situation, and strive for expansion of knowledge and accept assignments with regard to skill.
What does it mean to "render the message faithfully?" To deliver the message exactly as the speaker intended.
For which of the following reasons can an interpreter break the COE? When certain situations require legal action
What is AVLIC Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
AVLIV values include: Accountability and Competence, Non Discrimination, and Integrity of Professional relationships and business practices.
Ethical decision-making requires critical thinking which includes testing and comparing new ideas with standard responses and integrating the info learned with acceptable norms of professional behavior as well as: Determining if the info received is reliable and if the decision made is consistent with the COE while understanding that the COE might conflict with your own personal values.
Which of the following is not regulated by the Federal Communications Commission or other telecommunications legislations? Video Remote Interpreting
What is Video Remote Interpreting? Interpreting service used through video conferencing where typically the interpreter is at a different location.
The use of VRI requires that all parties understand the use of an interpreter as well as the technological requirements and must give consent to the use of VRI. When is consent not required? In a medical emergency.
Which term is commonly used by hearing people as an umbrella term for all people who have some kind of hearing loss but does not include the cultural aspects of deafness? Hearing Impaired
The term Deaf encompasses those that are culturally deaf or became deaf prior to age 19. What is the main reason the deaf are considered to have their own culture? They have their own language.
The deaf community consists of? Deaf people, those who support deaf people, and CODAs.
Which ways can help alleviate problems that deaf people have with interpreters? Require deaf culture courses in ITP/IPP programs, encourage Deaf consumers to be knowledgeable about the job of an interpreter, ensure that all instructors are qualified and teaching ASL, and not a form of English; Have interpreters re-evaluated.
How can RID help alleviate problems between interpreters and deaf clients? encourage RID to include continuing courses such as "local signs" to help maintain fluid communication in all regions, re-evaluate interpreters certification after expired, and place equal weight on sign-to-voice and voice-to-sign portions of the test.
Why is it that interpreters also serve as mediators between deaf and hearing culture? The interpreter serves as a bridge between deaf and hearing culture, knowing deaf tendencies as an interpreter, and knowing hearing tendencies as a hearing person.
Why is the correct use of space important? It makes signing quicker and it's easier to reference something already established.
What is an example of an idiomatic phrase? Don't count your chickens before they hatch.
What is a good example of cohesion? Identifying two objects in space to reference by pointing later on.
What is modality adaptation? Using NMS to establish the speaker's tone, volume, and emphasis to make it clear to the deaf client.
What would be the purpose of using repetition while interpreting a message? To emphasize the importance of a particular point the speaker is making.
What would be an example of reduplication? Signing "COLD" at the end of each thought when interpreting a speech about the importance of layering a child's clothing because it is cold outside.
What is meant by "restructuring?" Replacing one grammatical structure with another.
Why might an interpreter delete or omit part of a message? They save time by deleting phrases that are repeated.
What are incorrect ways to interpret double-negatives? change nothing and assume the deaf consumer will figure it out' change nothing and then explain the concept of a double-negative to the deaf consumer; ask the speaker to avoid double-negatives
What extra information might you include as an interpreter for the Deaf-Blind? Identify who is speaking and location of the speaker, the emotional affect and gestures of the speaker, and when a person enters/exits a room.
Which is not one of the steps in interpreting? a. take in the source language b. identify deep structure meaning c. formulate/rehearse target language utterance d. identify aloud what the spoken language is D. identify aloud what the spoken language is.
What abilities must an interpreter have when in the "hot seat?" Ability to store temporary information, make connections from source language to target language, and process information quickly.
What is meant by reciprocal signals? Certain eye behaviors, head nods, verbal utterances, to indicate that one is listening and understanding the message.
What is meant by critical thinking skills? Ability to break the whole into parts, to examine in detail.
Why would it be beneficial to the interpreter to be in the same "cohort" group, or group of people who experience many of the same historical and social conditions because of closeness in age? Coming from a similar background as the client will provide a common schema and there will be fewer misunderstandings.
What prediction would NOT aid the interpreter in preparing for interpreting? the overall intelligence of the speaker
A correct production of the target language would include: an interpretation that sounds natural and comfortable, linguistically correct, and culturally appropriate.
What is the definition of communication? Exchange of ideas or information between 2 or more entities.
While interpreting, the interpreter should continuously monitor significant aspects of the interaction, such as: Confirming comprehension/asking for clarification, checking for and correcting errors in output, and verifying maintenance of interpersonal dynamics.
When would be an appropriate time to use the third person instead of "me" or "i?" When interpreting for multiple speakers for a group discussion or when a teacher is yelling at another student in the classroom.
WHere did Thomas Braidwood originally wish to establish his school for the deaf? Philadelphia
Which person didn't allow the Cobbs School to be moved and made a member of the University of Virginia? Thomas Jefferson
Who were the first Americans known to have organized a school specifically for the education of deaf students? The bollings
What event kept the Bollings children in Scotland longer than anticipated? The American Revolution
John Braidwood arrived in the United States in 1812 with what intentions? To establish an institution to educate deaf people.
Why did Cogswell contact Braidwood after Braidwood's arrival in the states? He wanted Braidswood to be an instructor at his and Bollings school.
What tragedy struck the Bollings when their children returned home? Their oldest son died.
What would be an accurate definition for processing time? The interval of time between an interpreter's perceiving a message and conveying it; the time between the input of the source language and the output if the target language.
What would be considered a "visual noise?" Interpreting at an automotive plant in the middle of the production floor.
What might be an appropriate tactic to use to eliminate visual noise in an assignment? Ask that the meeting room or place that you're interpreting be relocated to somewhere less visually distracting.
What might be an accurate description of "chunking? " Pausing to catch a larger share of the message, and then delivering a synopsis of what was said in that chunk of information.
What should you NOT do when handling overlapping speech or signing? Ignoring the information that was overlapped and just saying, "if they could hear, they wouldn't understand either"
What kind of activity wouldn't be beneficial to educational interpreters? Medical vocabulary classes
What are some activities that reduce the effectiveness of the interpreters? copying and filing, playground supervision, or bus attendant duties.
True or False: An oral interpreter can assist a deaf participant's speechreading by over-enunciating every spoken word by the speaker? FALSE
Should an interpreter be worried that the therapist my not believe them if they interpret nonsensical things that a mental health patient says? NO
Techniques that an interpreter can use when interpreting a musical might be: Creating a visual picture through ASL, while preserving the rhythm of the music by the rate of the signing, using a small degree of body movement, but not dancing, or prolonging the sign's movement to show the duration of the word it represents.
What is an accurate definition of transliterating? Matching every sign to nearly every spoken word.
Why is it important for interpreters to consider buying malpractice insurance? To protect themselves legally and financially in the case of being accused of misinterpreting something.
What does the ADA entail? Employers should make reasonable accommodations to enable individuals with disabilities to obtain and hold employment.
What is the appropriate definition for code mixing? A single language dominating, but elements of another language are used.
The ____________ of the hand should be directed toward the addressee. Palm
What are examples of possible adjustments? Omissions, approximations, or errors. NOT REVERSAL
Which Act defines "limited English proficiency" and "native language?" The Bilingual Education Act of 1988
What is one way that Deaf people have NOT faced discrimination in the past? Obtaining a drivers license without restrictions
What does the ADA stand for? Americans with Disabilities Act
In what year was the National Defense Education Act created? 1958
In ASL what is the correct wat to give out a phone number? Double digits - 25, 14
Omissions, misspellings, and unusually slow speed are all types of: fingerspelling inaccuracies
What is NOT a stage of acculturation: A. delayed understanding B. accomplishment C. prediction D. confusion B - accomplishment
What does IDEA stand for? Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
What are two cultural difference categories? form and content
What is the least effective communication strategy between deaf and hearing people? speech and lipreading
It is okay to use mouthing _________. a. never b. mouthing individual letters instead of words. c. excessively. d. appropriately. D
Section 504 is associated with which Act? Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
RID and _________ are the two organizations responsible for the new Code of Professional Conduct. NAD - National Association for the Deaf



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