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cells, life functions, (nphs high)

the nitrogen base found in DNA but NOT RNA is Thymine
Lipids are different from other macromolecules because they are hydrophobic and don’t dissolve in water
Glycogen, cellulose, and starch are all polysaccharides
Which 2 kinds of molecules combine to form cell membranes? phospholipids and proteins
Which part of a phospholipid molecule is NON-POLAR & HYDROPHOBIC? the lipid “tails”
The process by which organisms take in food and break it down so that is can be used for energy. nutrition
The chemical combining of simple substances to make more complex substances. synthesis
The process by which substances move into or out of cells or are distributed within the cell. transport
The condition of a stable internal environment. homeostasis
Taking ready made food molecules from the environment. heterotrophic nutrition
The process of converting food molecules into a more usable form of energy. respiration
The elimination of undigested food. egestion
The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within the cells. metabolism
All the activities that help to maintain an organism’s homeostasis; ability to detect and respond to changes in the environment. regulation
An increase in cell number or cell size. growth
The removal of cellular wastes that result from chemical reactions. excretion
The process by which living things make new organisms of their own kind. reproduction
Using inorganic chemicals to make organic molecules. chemosynthesis
The study of life and all of its functions and processes. biology
The taking in of food to use it as energy. metabolism
Explain the difference between Heterotrophic Nutrition and Autotrophic Nutrition. Hetrophoric nutrition is taking ready made food molecules from the enviorment and autotrophic is taking simple inorganic molecules from the enviorment and coverting them into foods
Distinguish the difference between Metabolism and homeostasis. Metabolism is the entiere set of a chemical reactions within the cell of an organism. Homeostasis is having a stable equilibruim between elements
Whats the difference between excretion and egestion Excretion is the removal of toxic materials, Egestion is the passing out of undigested food
Is reproduction essential or nonessential for an organism to survive. Reproduction is nonessential in order for the organism to survive but in order for the organisms specices to continue reproduction is essential
Is DNA single or double stranded double
Which Nitrogen bases does DNA contain? adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine
Which Sugar does DNA contain? Deoxyribose
Whats DNAs functions? Protiens, regulation, metabolism, reproduction of cells
Is RNA single or double stranded Single
Which Nitrogen bases does RNA contain? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
Which Sugar does RNA contain? Ribose
Whats RNAs functions? Converts the info stored in DNA protiens
Protein hormone that tells animal cells to store blood glucose as glycogen Insulin
Protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body Hemoblobin
Membrane protein with carbohydrates attached that helps cells identify “self” and plays a role in blood types, organ transplants, and germ recognition Glycoprotien
Macromolecule with a polar glycerol/phosphate “head” and 2 non-polar hydrophobic “tails” used to make cell membranes phospholipids
Storage form of glucose used by plant cells starch
Storage form of glucose used by animal cells glycogen
Structural polysaccharide made from glucose subunits that makes plants sturdy cellulose
Nucleotide subunit made from ribose sugar, adenine, and 3 phosphates which stores and transports ENERGY in cells (ATP) Adenosine Triphosphate
Polar molecule made from 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms that is required by all living things Water
Reactants in an enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction are called Substances
Macromolecule that can act as enzymes are Proteins
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the activation energy
Enzymes are unchanged during chemical reactions and reusable
Name two (2) environmental conditions that can cause proteins (enzymes) to change their shape. High Tempature, PH
Many genetic diseases result from the production of enzymes that are not shaped correctly. How does changing in an enzyme’s shape cause it to work poorly or not at all? It can no longer connect at the active sight.
DNA polymerase is a molecule found in all cells. Judging by its name, do you think it is an enzyme? YES NO HOW CAN YOU TELL? Yes and I can tell because all enzymes end in -ase or -ise
Hydrophobic fats, oils, waxes, & steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains or multiple rings Lipids
how many sugars does Monosaccarides have and what are three examples one sugar and gluclose, fructose, galactose
how many sugars does polysaccarides have and what are three examples 2 or more sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose.
Functions of Carbohydrates Providing energy, break down of fatty acids
Functions of nucleic acids main info carrying molecules of the cell, storing genetic information
Functions of Lipids Serve as structural componets of cell membranes, Functions as energy store houses, important signaling molecules.
Functions of Protiens Structural protiens, transport, hormonal, receptor, defensive.
any of a large class of chemical compounds organic compound
Besides carbon, name 3 other elements that make up most organic compounds. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Carbon dioxide, CO 2 , is NOT an organic compound. Explain why. Its missing hydrogen
What reaction is used to breakdown polymers? Is water added or removed? How does this compare to dehydration synthesis? hydrolysis and DS removes water
In what ratio are hydrogen & oxygen atoms in carbohydrates? 2:1 H2O
In what 3 forms do carbohydrates exist? Monosaccarides, dissaccrides, polysaccrides
Because all 3 simple sugars have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas, they are called _______________. Isomers
What are double sugars called? Name & describe the process that forms them. Disarccrides formed by a condensation from 2 monomers. Condensation involves the loss of of a water molecule to form a bond.
What chemical reaction formed these large molecules? What reaction would be needed to break these molecules? Form: glycosidic Unform: hydrolysis
Compared to carbohydrates, what is true about the ratio of carbon & hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms? Lipids have the higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen than carbohydrates
Describe the shape of a lipid. linear
Name the 3 groups of complex lipids. Phospholipids glycolipids,tryciporides
 What are the 4 main elements making up proteins? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
What are the monomers of proteins called? How many are there? Amino Acids there are 20 of them.
The main difference among amino acids is their ___________ group. R group (Ratical)
How does a dipeptide form? when the amino acids join together by one peptide bond
Give the name & abbreviation for 2 nucleic acids found in cells. DNA, RNA
Why might a lysosome fuse with or link up with a food vacuole? Lysome contains digestive enzymes
In what organelle do molecules move from the ER to the Golgi bodies? What is a centriole? Golgi complex, and a centerole is a set of microtubles
Cell wall plant or animal or both both
Chlorophlast animal plant or both plant
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum plant or animal or both animal
Cytoplasm plant or animal or both both
Microtubles plant or animal or both both
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum plant or animal or both both
Golgi Apparatus plant or animal or both both
Lysosome plant or animal or both both
Mitochondria plant or animal or both both
Nucleolus plant or animal or both both
Nucleus plant or animal or both both
Nuclear membrane plant or animal or both both
Cell membrane plant or animal or both Animal
Central vacuole plant or animal or both plant
Ribosome plant or animal or both both
Vacuole plant or animal or both both
Are bacteria PROKARYOTES or EUKARYOTES? Prokaryotes
Are fungi, plants, and animals PROKARYOTES or EUKARYOTES? Eukaryotes
What are two organelles that all cells (prokaryotes AND eukaryotes) have? Cell membrane and ribosomes
What is the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Eukarytes have a membrane bound nucleus but prokaryotes dont
In what organelle does cellular respiration take place? mitochondrion
Name two storage organelles? vesicles and vacuoles
What is the list of organelles that take part in protein synthesis? nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, er transports golgi
How is the nucleus involved in protein synthesis? nucleus has instructions for making protiens and the nucleus is the home of the nucleous that makes ribosomes that make protiens.
What organelle is considered a “factory”, because it takes in raw materials and converts them to cell products that can be used by the cell? chlorophlasts
How does the membrane of the cell differ from the nuclear membrane? What advantages does this difference have for the nucleus? cell membrane protext the cell and the nucleus protects the nucleous.
What do ribosomes do? Are they found freely floating in the cytoplasm? OR are they found attached to another organelle? OR both. Explain why this occurs. ribosomes float free and they make protiens that are used inside the cell
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do? produces protiens for the rest of the cell
What are lysosomes? What types of molecules would be found inside a lysosome? They are membrane bound organelles that contain about fifty different enzyems
At what level of organization does life begin? cell
What surrounds all cells? cell membrane
What is meant by semipermeable? only certain things can go through it
The cell membrane is also called the plasma membrane
What additional layer is found Ground the outside of plant cells and bacteria? cell wall
centrioles are found at the center of the centrosome
Where is DNA found inside a cell? nucleus
What cell process is controlled by the nucleus? protien synthesis
DNA coils tightly during division and assembles into visible chromosones
Where are organelles located? cytoplasm
Where are proteins made in a cell? ribosomes
Do all cells need ribosomes? yes
What process takes place inside chioroplasts? photosynthesis
How does rough ER differ from smooth ER? same membranes different shapes
Give 3 jobs for smooth ER. 1. makes protiens and lipids 2. controls muscle and calcium levels 3. detoxifies poisions, alchohol and, drugs
What pigment traps the energy? chlorophil
Chloroplasts are found in what type of cell(s)? plant and alge
The largest organelle in plants is the cenralvacuole
Stores material within the cell vacuoles
Organelle that manages or controls all the cell functions in a eukaryotic cell nucleus
Digests excess or worn-out cell parts, food particles and invading viruses or bacteria lysosomes
Surrounds the nucleus and controls what enters and exits the nucleus nuclear membrane
Firm, protective structure that gives the cell its shape in plants, fungi, most bacteria and some protests cell wall
Produces a usable form of energy for the cell mitocondria
Packages proteins for transport out of the cell golgi body
Assembles some components of the cell membrane; synthesizes lipids endoplasmic reticulum
Site where ribosomes are made nucleus
Provides support for the cell and controls what goes in and out of the cell cell membrane
Consist of hollow tubes which provide support for the cell and tracks for organelles to move on microtubles
Jelly-like fluid inside the cell membrane cytoplasm
Assembles some components of the cell membrane; modifies proteins; has ribosomes attached to it rough er
Small organelle that assists with cell division centrioles
Created by: vmajor



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