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Mohave Largest SoCal concentration of Native Americans. Settled agriculture on the Colorado River
Shoshone Nomads of the Great Basin. Foragers, hunters
Shasta Pastoral nomads of the Northeast. Forage, hunt, fish, and use shells for currency
Chumash Coastal pastoral nomads. Canoes for trading and fish. Matriarchal with male or female chiefs
Pomo Costal and rivers in the Northwest. Not a single tribe, but small bands linked by geography and marriage. Smallest
Missions 21 along El Camino Real to convert Native Americans. Birth of CA agriculture, sites selected for water, soil, and Native numbers
Pueblos Civilian towns near missions to provide a food supply
Presidios Forts to protect missions
Californios Spanish-speaking CA residents from Mexico. Often owned ranchos and traded with US settlers.
Bear Flag/Sonoma Revolt American settlers in CA revolt against Mexico to create the Republic of CA. Ended by US troops
Treaty of Cahuenga 1847. Ends the Mexican-American War in CA with a ceasefire. So long as Californios didn't rebel, they'd have rights
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago 1848. Ends the Mexican-American War in Texas. US gets CA, NV, UT, AZ, and NM
Gold Rush Gold discovered in 1848 at Sutter's Mill, hydraulic mining beings in 1853. Led to huge population increase and CA's statehood in 1850. Financed the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad. Natives lost land and died from diseases.
CA Constitution 1849 first draft. Married women could maintain ownership of property, CA is a free state, set eastern boundary
New CA Constitution 1911. Governor Hiram Johnson and the Progressives to include women's suffrage, initiatives, referendums, and recalls
Central Pacific Railroad Part of the Transcontinental Railroad, finished in 1869
Leland Stanford President of the Central Pacific Railroad
Collis Potter Huntington Development of the Central Pacific Railroad
Mark Hopkins Treasurer of the Central Pacific Railroad
Charles Crocker Construction of the Central Pacific Railroad
Sacramento Capital of CA since 1854. Previously San Jose, Vallejo, and Benicia. Separate political and economic power
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882. Prohibited Chinese immigration following an influx during the Gold Rush. The only immigration law based on race
Gentleman's Agreement 1907. Japan would stop immigration of unskilled workers, and US would accept the current Japanese immigrants and their families and not discriminate in schools
National Reclamation Act 1902. Encouraged the irrigation of arid land to create new farmlands. Drew in Mexican workers.
1924 Immigration Act Whatever the foreign-born population was in 1890, only 2% of that would be allowed into the US annually. (
Immigration Act of 1965 Eliminated national quotas, leading to a flood of Asian immigrants
Bracero Program 1942. Allowed Mexican hired hands to work on farms short-term to replace WWII soldiers, and many remained illegally
Dust Bowl 1930s in the Great Plains caused by severe drought and over-plowing. "Okies" traveled to CA to work on farms
Agriculture CA is the largest agriculture growing and processing state, became more important than mining
Land Grants 1880s. Gave free land to farmers to plant certain crops
Central Valley The hub of CA agriculture
Water Projects Hetch Hetchy, LA Aquaduct, Central Valley Project
Bartleson-Bidwell 1841. First wagon train of overland settlers from the US
Ohlone Not one tribe, but independent villages in the Bay Area
Russian Settlements Otter and other furs
Largest Single Sector of CA Economy Education and Health Services
Main CA water source Sierra Nevada runoff
Created by: johea
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