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Chap 26 - Innate Imm

Innate Immunity: Broadly Specific Host Defenses

QuestionAnswer
immunity is the ability of an organism to resist infection
innate immunity is (specific/nonspecific) innate immunity is NONSPECIFIC
what is the function of innate immunity the noninducible ability to recognize and destroy an individual pathogen or its products
innate immunity (does/does not) require previous exposure to a pathogen or its products innate immunity DOES NOT require previous exposure to a pathogen or its products
adaptive immunity is (specific/nonspecific) adaptive immunity is SPECIFIC
this is the *aquired* ability to recognize and destroy a particular pathogen or its products adaptive immunity
adaptive immunity is dependent on previous exposure to a specific pathogen or its products
define specificity the ability of the adaptive immune system to attack and destroy a specific pathogen
adapted immunity is directed towards and individual molecular component of a pathogen
another word for antigen pathogen
the primary effectors in the innate immunity phagocytes
name the three main white blood cells that are part of innate immunity dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages
this type of immunity has no memory after exposure innate immunity
(innate/adaptive) immunity has a rapid response that can respond within several hours; (innate/adaptive) immunity response requires a few days INNATE immunity is rapid, ADAPTIVE immunity can take days
what are the primary effector cells that for the adaptive immune system Lymphocytes (B and T)
Antibodies come from plasma cells
for an active infection, what adaptive immunities help fight the infection antibodies and cytotoxic T cells
after exposure to an infection, how is adaptive immunity kept up B-Cells and Memory T-Cells
the Normal microbiota help with pathogen resistance, ho competitive exclusion (particularly in the skin and gut)
(not a question) the ability of a microbe to cause disease varies between species (I.e. variable sensitivity to rabies, failure of diseases to pass between cold and warm blooded animals)
tears and other bodily secretions carry ______________ and dissolves bacterial walls lysozyme
these anatomical structures in the nasopharynx, and trachea help to remove particles cilia
what is the function of mucus lining the trachea walls to trap/suspend the microorganisms
there are several important functions of skin, what are they 1) physical barrier, 2) production of antimicrobial fatty acids, 3) production of antibacterial peptides, 4) host normal microbiota that help inhibit infection
several things in the lungs help prevent infection, what are they mucus, antibacterial peptides, and roaming phagocytes
how do epithelial cells through out the body prevent infections, they have tight junctions that inhibit pathogens from entering
in the urinary tract, what helps prevent infection flushing of the bladder
(not a question) different pathogens invade different tissues and routes of infection are crucial (tetanus = wounds, Salmonella = ingestion)
what is the pathogen for Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus)
what does HIV/AIDS infect helper T-lymphocytes
Botulism is caused by _________________ and infects the ___________________ Clostridium botulinum; Motor End Plate
Vibrio cholerae is commonly called ____________________ and infects the _________________ Cholera; Small intestine epithelium
Dental Caries are caused by __________________ and infect ___________________ Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis; oral epithelium
Cprynebacterium diphtheriae causes Diptheria
Diptheria infects ______________________ throat epithelium
Gonorrhea is caused by ____________________ and infects ______________________ Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Mucosal epithelium
Influenza is caused by ______________________ and infects _________________ Influenza A & B virus; respiratory epithelium
Malaria is caused by _______________ and infects _____________________ Plasmodium spp.; Blood (erythrocytes)
Pyelonephritis is caused by _________________ and infects ____________________ Proteus spp.; Kidney medulla
Spontaneous abortions in cattle is caused by ____________________ and infects _____________ Brucella abortus; Placenta
Tetanus is caused by ______________________ and infects __________________________ Clostridium tetani; Inhibitory neurons
describe the lymphatic system a separate circulatory system that drains lymph fluid from extravascular tissues
in what location of the circulatory system do leukocytes and solutes pass from the blood to the lymphatic system capillary beds
the lymph nodes contain high concentrations of lymphocytes and phagocytes
leukocytes (including phagocytes and lymphocytes) make up only _____________________ percent of the blood cells 0.1%
_________________________ influence the development of stem cells Cytokines
what his whole blood composed of plama (liquid), its protiens, other solutes, and cells
what is serum the liquid portion of the blood that is not cells or clotting proteins (DOES contain antibodies)
Leukocytes (are/are not) nucleated Leukocytes ARE nucleated
___________________ are specialized leukocytes involved exclusively in the adaptive immune response Lymphocytes
name the two types of lymphocytes T-Cells and B-cells
where do T Cells originate and mature T Cells originate in the red bone marrow, and mature in the thymus
where do B cells originate and mature B cells originate and mature in the red bone marrow
the primary lymphoid organ(s) is(are) bone marrow and thymus
Myeloid cells are derived from myeloid precursor cell
what are the two categories that a myeloid cell can be divided into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and granulocytes
what is the function of antigen presenting cells engulfing, processing, and presenting antibodies to lymphocytes
what white blood cell types are antigen-presenting cells monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
what are the functions of granulocytes contain toxins or enzymes that are released to kill target cells
what types f white blood cells are granulocytes neurtophils, basophils, and eosinophils
lymphoid stem cells produce T Cells, B Cells, NK (natural killer) cells
Each lymphocyte produces a unique protein that interacts with a single foreign antigen. what is it for the T Cells? what is it for the B Cells? T Cells = T Cell receptors (TCRs); B Cells = antibodies/immunoglobulins (Ig's)
what is the invasion phase of an infection the ability of a pathogen to enter host cells or tissue, multiply, spread, and cause disease
_______________________ triggers the recruitment of a large number of phagocytes tissue damage
what structure(s) release cytokines resident leukocytes and damaged tissue cells
cytokines allow for communication between white blood cells
the release of __________________ and ______________________ draws macrophages and neutrophils to the area as they leave the circulation cytokines and chemokines
what is extravasion when macrophages and neutrophils leave circulation
what are Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP's) certain structures /molecules on pathogens that are not present of the host cell
what are some examples of PAMPs peptidoglycan, flagellin, and double stranded RNA
what are pattern recognition receptors membrane-bound/soluble proteins on leukocytes that recognize PAMPs
upon encountering a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) ______________________________ will send a signal to the nucleu Toll-like receptors (TLR)
all toll-like receptors have analogous mechanisms for activating __________________ immunity TLR activate INNATE immunity
once TLR is activated in a leukocyte will start a _________________________ cascade to transmit the activation signal to the nucleus phosphorylation
__________________ are enzymes that regulate biological activity by adding Phosphate (P) from ATP to specific amino acids Kinases
_____________________ is a key transcription factor that is activated in many different pathways during signal transduction in phagocytes NFkB
what is phagocytosis when a phagocyte engulfs a pathogen upon recognition of PAMPs by the Toll-like Receptors on phagocytes
when does a phgosome occur when the pathogen is held in a membrane bound vesicle immediately after being engulfed by a phagocyte
what is a phaygolysosome when a phagosome and lysosome combine
in what cellular structure do phagocytes produce toxic reactive oxygen intermediates that kill a pathogen phagolysosome
name the some types of bacteria that are known to survive in a phagolysosom Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) and Streptococcus pyogenes
Tuberculosis produces ___________________ to neutralize singlet oxygen in a phagolysosom and has a waxy cell wall that absorbs free radicles cartenoids
This pathogen lives and divides in phagocytes Mycobacteria tuberculosis
Streptococcus pyogenes produces ______________________ which kill white blood cells leukocidins
dead white blood cells are found in _____________ pus
what is the benefit of having a capsule it is difficult for a phagocyte to engulf a capsule; however antibodies can react with this (which is partly why vaccines are important)
what is inflammation nonspecific reaction to noxious stimuli
what are some signs and symptoms of inflammation redness, swelling, pain, and localized heat (at site of infection)
what proteins draw WBC's to the site of inflammation cytokines and chemokines
describe an effective inflammatory response limits tissue damage, destroys damaged cells and pathogens
describe an uncontrolled inflammation can results in considerable damage to healthy tissue and key organs (i.e. brain and lungs)
what causes a fever certain cytokines (particularly IL-1)
fever-causing cytokines are called pyrogens
why are fevers beneficial the increase the blood circulation rate, which allows leukocytes to get to the site of the infection faster, some pathogens cannot tolerated the heat
name the molecules that are present in fevers and help sequester Iron to keep it away from growing pathogens transferrins
Systemic (widesread) inflammation can lead to shock, increased vascular permeability, decreased blood pressure, and multiple organ failure/damage
why is gram-negative bacteria particularly dangerous they contain Lipopolysaccharides, which trigger a proinflammatory cytokine response (which can stimuate/enhance the inflammatory response)
what can lead to a cytokine storm LPS from gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a proinflammatory cytokine response
the ________________ system is a set of circulating =, inactive proteins that are sequentially activated in response to a pathogen complement system
in the classical pathway of the compliment system begins when antibodies bind to a pathogen, C1 binds to the antibodies and begins to cleave C2 and C4
in the alternative pathway of the compliment system begins when factor B, factor P (properdin), and factor D bind to the bacteria (specifically LPS), which cleaves C3
in the lectin pathway of the compliment system begins when lectins bind to carbohydrates, then cleaves to C2 and C4
in the classical pathway, after C2 and C4 are cleaved, what happens C2a-C4b combine to make C3 convertase
what does C3 convertase (C2a-C4b) do cleaves C3
after C3 has been cleaved what does C3b do binds to the target cell, this coating helps make it easier to the phagocytes to engulf it, or it will attach to a C3 convertase
after C3 has been cleaved what does C3a do diffuses into the surrounding area and serves as a chemoattractant
what is opsonization when C3b covers the outside of a pathogen
when C3 convertase (C2a-C4b) binds to C3b the C3 convertase cleaves C5
after C5 is cleaved what happens to C5a and C5b? C5a is released and C5b binds to the cell
what is the Membrane attack complex when C5b binds to the cell
what is the end result of all the pathways in the compliment system 1) direct attack (via Membrane attack complex), 2) recruitment of phagocytes (C5a and C3a), 3) opsonization (C3b)
what makes the Mannose-binding lectin (MBL and alternative pathways different from the classical pathway they relay on innate mechanisms rather than antibodies to activate the compliment system
some chemoattractants (C5a and C3a) are considered __________________, because they can lead to immune over-activation anaphylatoxins
natural killer cells are _________________ cytotoxic lymphocytes
natural killer cells attack body cells that do NOT display ____________ on their plasma protein Major Histocompatibility Complex I
if a natural killer cell targets a host cell with a stress protein, we can likely assume that that cell is infected with either a virus or has become cancerous
what is a granzyme an enzyme that induces programmed cell death (apoptosis)
perforin is chemically and functionally similar to C9, it pokes holes (or perforates) the target membrane
interferons are small cytokines that are produced by virus-infected cells, they serve as a warning system,
how do interferons work on a neighboring cell interferons stimulate the antiviral proteins that attack the DNA/RNA of an incoming virus
Created by: kandriot
 

 



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