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RS Ch 1 General

Control of Communicable and Non-Infectious Disease

ACCUTE DISEASES An acute disease (as opposed to chronic disease) is medically defined as an adverse condition that appears suddenly, progresses rapidly, and is of relatively short duration.
ACTIVE IMMUNITY Immunity resulting from the development of antibodies in response to the presence of an antigen, as from vaccination or exposure to an infectious disease.
AGENT any microorganism capable of causing disease
ANTIGEN any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior
CARCINOGEN Any factor or combinatyion fo factors that increases the risk of cancer.
CARRIER A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease- a potential source of infection
CHRONIC DISEASE long lasting or recurrent. Looks at rate of onset and development. Caused by a variety of factors- difficult to identify, treat and control.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE A clinically evident disease resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause
DISINFECTION The application of microbicidal chemicals to materials (surfaces as well as water) - to kill pathogenic microorganisms. May not be totally effective.
EPIDEMIOLOGY The study of the occurance, frequency, and distribution of a disease in selected human populations. Find preventative action (social, biological, chemical or physical)
FOMITE is any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms (such as germs or parasites) and hence transferring them from one individual to another. A fomite can be anything (such as a cloth or mop head), so when cleaning, it is importa
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal ____. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the ________.
HOST A living thing that provides 'housing' to an infectious agent under natural conditions
INCUBATION PERIOD The interval between exposure to a host to an infection and the onsite of clinical symptoms
INFECTIOUS DISEASE Caused by the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the body; may or may not be contagious (communicable)
LD50 the medial lethal dose, causing death in 50 % of the animals exposed by swallowing a substance; a measure of acute toxicity
MUTAGEN A chemical capable of producing a heritable change in genetic material. Many chemicals that pollute are ___ but hazard is not known for levels found in the environment
NOEL No-Observed-Effect Level: expressed as a dose in milligrams of chemical per kg of body weight.
PATHOGEN an infectious agent capable of causing disease
PERSONAL HYGIENE protective measures to promote health and limit spread of infectious diseases
RESERVIOR Any person, animal, arthropod, plant, soil or substance where infections agent lives, multiplies, and survives.
RETROSPECTIVE STUDY Draws conclusions from events or information that occurred in the past.
SANITIZE To reduce microorganism level to an acceptable level, usually by the application of heat or chemicals
STERILIZATION Process of killing all microorganisms, including spores
TERATOGEN An agent (radiation, virus, drug, chemical) that acts during pregnancy to produce defect in offspring. Methylmercury and Thalidomide.
AGE ADJUSTED DEATH RATE shows the level of mortality if there were no changes in the age composition of a populatino from year to year. Better indicator than unadjusted rate of change over time in the risk of dying.
ANTISEPSIS The application of chemical agents to living tissue to kill or control microorganisms
CARCINOGEN causes cancer
CONTAMINATION The presence of an infectious agent on a body surface; clothes, bedding, toys, food and water are included.
ENDEMIC The constant persence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area. May refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within such area
ENDOTOXIN Substance produced by a microorganism that is retained within the cell but is leberated when the cell disintegrates causing intoxication. Withstands autoclaving.
ENTEROTOXIN Substance produced by certain microorganisms. It is associated with symptoms of food poisoning and is heat stable.
EPIDEMIC The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or an outbreak) clearly in excess of expectancy. Two cases associated in time and place are enough to consider this type of situation.
PRIMARY OR DIFINITIVE HOST The parasite matures or passes sexual stage.
SECONDARY OR INTERMEDIATE HOSTS parasite is in a larval or asexual state while in host
TRANSPORT HOST a carrier in which the organism remains alive but does not undergo development
IMMUNOBIOLOGIC Vaccines, toxoids, and antibody containing preparations from human or animal donors, including globulins or antitoxins
VACCINE A suspension of live attenuated or killed microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, or rickettsias) administered to induce immunity
TOXOID A modified bacterial toxin that has been rendered nontoxic
IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IG) A sterile solution containing antibody from human blood.Used for passive immunization against measles and hep A.
SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN prepared from donors withhigh antibody content against specific diseases.
ANTITOXIN A solution of antibodies derived from the serum of animals immunized with specific antigens- used to achieve passive immunity
INFECTION The entrance and growth of a pathogen in humans or animals that grows and causes illness
LC50 The median lethal concentration of a substance in the air causing death in 50 % by inhalation; a measure of acute toxicity
NEUROTOXIN A toxin that attacks nerve cells (i.e., botulism)
POLLUTION change in air, land or water which may harm human life
PRIMARY PREVENTION Action to promote health and prevent disease. Immnization, having safe water to drink, sanitation, education, maternal and child care
SECONDARY PREVENTION Early detection and treatment. Surveillance, screening and monitoring, fluoride in water
TERTIALRY PREVENTION amelioration of a disease to reduce disability or dependence resulting from it.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE average 8 hour exposure
TOXICITY ACUTE CONDITION Adverse effect shortly after exposure: viruses, colds, flu, GI, less than three months
TOXICITY CHRONIC CONDITION injury that persists during prolonged exposure period (cancer or liver damage) heart disease, diabetes, emphysema. Lasts more than three months
TOXIN poison from animal or plant
TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIVE AGENTS infectious agent is spread from a source or resevoir to a person
DIRECT TRANSMISSION direct and immediate transfer of infectious agents to a portal of entry- touching, biting, kissing, sex, sneezing, spitting 1m or less
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION (3 TYPES) Vehicleborne, Vectorborne, Airborne
VEHICLEBORNE intermediate means of transport of infectious agent. Fomites, water, food, milk. May or may not mutliply on/in vehicle.
VECTORBORNE (2 TYPES) mechanical: carried by insect's feet or proboscis or through it's GI tract. Biological; propagation or cyclical development is required BEFORE transmission
AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION Droplet Nuclie (autopsy rooms) or Dust (fungus or spores)
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA the characteristics of a population
GROWTH PHASE time of cell division
LAG PHASE cells adjust to growth- catch up
MORBIDITY a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause
MORTALITY a measure of the number of deaths in a given population
PREVALENCE the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. A/(A+B)
PROSPECTIVE STUDY one might follow a cohort of middle-aged truck drivers who vary in terms of smoking habits, in order to test the hypothesis that the 20-year incidence rate of lung cancer will be highest among heavy smokers, followed by moderate smokers, and then nonsmok
BODY BURDEN also known as chemical load, is the amount of harmful chemicals present in a person's body
SOURCE food or infected or infested animals, poisonous plants, parasites, toxid substances, radiation, noise
MODE OF TRANSMISSION OR CONTRIBUTING FACTORS environmental pollutants, contacts, animlas, personal behavior, hygiene, sanitation, climate
SUSCEPTIBILITY (host factors) all animals resulting in acute, chronic or delayed effects; depending on portal of entry, dose, toxicity
BIOLOGIC FACTORS/ AGENTS arthropods, fungi, bacteria, viruses
Decrease in Infant Mortality leads to increase in life expectancy
Examples of sanitation chlorinated water, sewage disposal, milk pasteurization, chlorination, hygiene, nutrition
What type of population would show an increase in L.E due to prevention of deaths from particular disease? homogenous population; Risk factors vary with age
Greatest life expectancy Increase would come from______ however, increasing general quality of life and control disease; LE does not identify morbidity or quality of life
Principle of Multiple Barriers Source => Mode of Transmission => Susceptibility Phelps says to attack all three at same time- erect barriers at each "link"
Control of Source (EPA) "zero-discharge" goal- change the process to eliminate or minimize offending substance (PCB's for example)
Control of Source (water) find cleanest drinking water- no mocrobial or toxic chemicals add fluoride and softener
Control of Source Shellfish don't let people eat food from toxic waters (pathogens, methylmercury, PCB)
Control of Source Food regulate production and assure of good nutritional content
Control of Source pest management eliminate vectors (arthropods, rodents) that spread disease
Control of Source Disease Resevoir separate infected people and animals when infectious
Control of Transmission and Environmental Factors prevent travel of infected vectors, have safe water to drink, safe food to eat, safe air to breathe
Control of Susceptibles immunization and good housing, sanitation and hygiene
Koch's Postulates TB 1. Observed the bacillus in association with all cases of the disease 2. grown the organism outside the body of the host 3. reproduced the disease in a susceptible host with culture
Respiratory Diseases spread through milk: scarlet fever, streptococcal sore throat, diphtheria = RAW MILK
Respiratory Diseases spread through contact with people or things: Smallpox, chickenpox, mumps, mono, meningitis
% soil moisture for survival of pathogens 10 to 20%
Ideal conditions for pathogens in soil 10-20% saturation, good nutrients, ph does not affect, low sunlight, low temperatures
Water Treatment to eliminate pathogens free residual chlorine and low turbidity (less than 1 NTU) can kill virus
Bacteria ubiquitous one-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains,, a phylum of the kingdom Monera, various species of which are involved in fermentation, putrefaction, infectious diseases, or nitrogen fixation
Two forms of bacteris Vibrios and spirochetes
Viruses parasitic organisms, electron microscope, grow inside host bur can live outside of host, hard to detect.
rickettsias inbetween a bacteria and virus
Two forms of protozoa giardia and crypto
Helminths worms and worm like parasites
Mycotoxins poisonous chemicals produced by molds
Aflatoxin carcinogen, mold growth, Aspergillus
Created by: jpankey
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