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USHIST UNIT 3 2020

Mr. Stickler's U.S. History "Settling the West" test flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "boomtowns" mean/ refer to? This term refers to small towns that seemed to spring up overnight during the Gold Rush era.
Who was Henry Comstock? He was a gold prospector who staked a claim in Six - Mile Canyon near Virginia City, Nevada in 1859. Eventually a vein of pure silver ore was discovered there and was called the "Comstock Lode".
Which state had the largest gold field in the western U.S. between 1848 - 1890? California had these.
List two (2) states that had substantial silver fields between 1848 - 1890. Nevada and Idaho.
What does the term "vigilance committees" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "self - appointed volunteers who would track down and punish wrongdoers" in "boomtowns".
What typically led to the collapse of "boomtowns"? This happened when the local mines stopped producing ores (usually gold or silver).
List the names of 3 railroads that made stops at towns in the mining region of the western U.S. 1.) The Denver & Rio Grande Western; 2.) The South Park & Pacific; 3.) The Colorado Midland.
Which 3 new states were admitted to the United States in 1889? North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana.
In what year did Arizona have enough people to apply for statehood? 1912
What does the term "hydraulic mining" mean/ refer to? This term refers to removing large quantities of earth using water sprayed at very high pressure against hills or mountains where miners were digging for ores (usually gold or silver).
List two (2) negative environmental impacts that results from "hydraulic mining". 1.) Millions of tons of sand, silt, & gravel were washed into riverbeds, which caused them to overflow and flood individual homes and some cities. 2.) Farm land was ruined by rocks & gravel that were left behind by flooding that resulted from this process
What does the term "open range" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a vast area of grassland that the federal government owned" during the late 1800's. Ranchers grazed there herds there free of charge & "unrestricted of private property".
Where did Texas Longhorns - a type of cattle - descend from? This type of cattle descended from Spanish cattle.
What role did railroads play in the cattle industry after the Civil War? These were used to ship cattle to eastern businesses.
What does the term "long drive" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "driving cattle long distances to a railroad depot for fast transport and great profit".
How many major cattle drive trails existed around 1870? 5 of these existed during this time.
What invention of the late 1800's eventually ended the practice of "long drives"? The invention of barbed wire did this.
List 2 things that helped bring about the end of "long drives" besides barbed wire. 1.) A huge influx of cattle from overseas markets caused an oversupply of animals on the market which caused prices to drop; 2.) A blizzard that occurred during the 2inter of 1886 - '87 that caused a massive number of cattle to freeze or starve to death.
What does the term "haciendas" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "huge ranches that covered thousands of acres" in California.
What does the term "forty - niners" refer to? This term refers to prospectors who went to California searching for gold in 1849.
What does the term "barrios" mean/ refer to? This term refers to Hispanic neighborhoods in El Paso, Albuquerque, and Los Angeles. These areas played a large part in helping keep Hispanic cultural and religious traditions alive.
What was the "Homestead Act of 1862"? This law encouraged the settlement of the Great Plains by allowing individuals and families to claim up to 160 acres of land in this area for a $10 registration fee and an agreement to live on the land and farm it for 5 years.
What is a "homestead"? This is "a tract of public land available for settlement",
List 3 things that settlers faced on the Great Plains in the late 1800's. 1.) Grasshoppers; 2.) Fires/wild fires; 3.) Blizzards/ extreme cold.
What is "dry farming"? This is a technique where seeds are planted deep in the ground where there is enough moisture for them to grow".
What does the term "sod busters" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "those who plowed the Plains".
In what state did the Wounded Knee incident take place? South Dakota
What area of the U.S. is considered the "Wheat Belt"? Much of the Dakotas and parts of Nebraska and Kansas are considered part of this.
What does the term "bonanza farms" mean/ refer to? This term refers to wheat farms that could be as large as 50,000 that yielded huge profits for their owners.
What led to most large wheat farmers losing their farms and having to be tenant farmers on them instead by 1900? This was caused by a huge amount of wheat being sent to markets around the world by the 1890's, which caused prices to drop dramatically.
What led historian Frederick Jackson Turner to state that there was no more "frontier" left in the United States? The Oklahoma Land Rush led him to say this. He concluded that there was no longer any land left that was not settled in the United States.
What does the term "annuities" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "annual payments from the government".
What did the Indian Peace Commission propose in 1867? This group proposed the creation of 2 large reservations on the Plains: one for the Sioux and one for Native Americans of the Southern Plains.
Who was Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer? He was the leader of the U.S. 7th Cavalry in the late 1800's.
Who was Chief Joseph? He was the leader of the Nez Perce tribe.
What does the term "assimilate" mean/ refer to? This term means "be absorbed".
What does the term "allotments" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a plot of land assigned to an individual or family for cultivation".
What was the Dawes Act of 1887? This Act gave each head of the household 160 acres of reservation land for farming; single adults got 80 acres, and 40 acres were allowed for each child in a family.
Complete the following sentence: "The Chisholm Train went from ________________________ to ____________________________." Southern Texas to Abilene.
According to the video that we watched in class - "America - the Story of Us - Westward", who were Lewis and Clark? They were explorers hired by President Thomas Jefferson to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and catalog all of the plants, animals, and peoples that they saw there.
According to the video that we watched in class - "America - the Story of Us - Westward", who was Jedediah Smith? He was a "mountaineer" who trapped animals in the Rocky Mountains and sold their furs to clothing makers. One of the trails that he created later became a modern state highway.
According to the video that we watched in class - "America - the Story of Us - Westward", who did President Thomas Jefferson buy the Louisiana Territory from? He purchased this area from Napoleon Bonaparte of France.
According to the video that we watched in class - "America - the Story of Us - Westward", who fought at the Battle of the Alamo? The United States and Mexico fought in this Texas battle.
According to the video that we watched in class - "America - the Story of Us - Westward", who signed the Indian Removal Act in 1830? President Andrew Jackson signed this.
What brought a flood of prospectors to Virginia City in 1859? The discovery of the Comstock Lode - a vein of nearly pure silver ore - did this.
What does the term "sod" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "densely packed soil held together by grass roots". This was used by early settlers of the Great Plains to build homes.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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