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APHG 3.7

words from learning objective 3.7

TermDefinition
dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
isogloss A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
linguist a language specialist
language families large groups of languages having similar roots
language branches A group of languages that share a common origin but have evolved into different languages
language groups set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
bilingual Able to speak two languages
multilingual speaking several languages
pidgin A simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages
official language The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
extinct language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
lingua franca A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Logogram/Ideogram/Pictogram A symbol that represents a word rather than a sound
creolization The blending of African, European, and some Amerindian cultural elements into the unique sociocultural systems found in the Caribbean.
Creole Language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
ethnic religion a religion that is particular to one culturally distinct group of people
universalizing religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
cultural hearth Locations on Earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.
Indo-European Languages languages from the indo-european family. Spoken by half of the world's people, and includes, among others, the germanic, romance, and slavic subfamilies.
toponyms The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
Christianity A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Islam A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Sikhism the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Buddhism Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
Judaism A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Hindusim A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Animism The belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spirits
pilgrimage A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
secularism A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
Zionism A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
religion branch A large and fundamental division within a religion
sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Sharia Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
theocracry A government controlled by religious leaders
polytheistic Belief in many gods
monotheistic Belief in one God
caste system a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Karma (Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
diaspora A dispersion of people from their homeland
Created by: karaangelos
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