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Chap. 24 - Humans

Chapter 24 - Microbial Symbioses with Humans

QuestionAnswer
what is a microbiome a functional collection of different microbes in a particular environmental system
(not a question) different microhabitats support different microbes. Therefore the microbiota in the skin will be different than the microbes in the mouth
the human and the microbiota that inhabit it are called supraorganism
(not a question) there is roughly same, to 10X the number of normal body cells compromising the supraorganism
some future benefits of understanding the human microbiome development of biomarkers for predicting predisposition to diseases, designing targeted therapies, and personalized drug therapies and probiotics
why is it difficult to study the microbiota in the human supraorganism most Bacteria in the supraorganism of the human microbiome cannot be easily cultured; many of these organisms require specific growth environments that are hard to replicate
describe the guts and diets of humans humans are monogastric, and are omnivorous
how do microbes affect the human gut throughout they can effect early development, general health, and an individuals predisposition for disease
when does gut colonization begin for humans gut colonization begins at birth for humans
what are some anatomical structures in the human gastrointestinal tract stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
what is the human GI tract responsible for digestion of food, absorption of nutrient, and production of nutrients by the indigenous microbial flora
microbial populations of the GI tract are influenced by diet and physical conditions in the area
what is the approximate pH of the stomach and the duodenum if the small intestine approx. 2 pH
why is it important to know the pH of the stomach and the beginning of the small intestine the low pH (acidic conditions) may prevent many organisms from colonizing this area of the GI tract
a healthy stomach (does/does not) have a rich microbiome despite the highly acidic conditions of the stomach id DOES have a rich microbiome in healthy humans
what are the three common genera in the gastric fluid Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria
what are the common genera in the mucus layer of the stomach Firmicutes and Proteobacteria
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was first discovered in _______________ 1980
H. pylori is found in nearly ____________, the rest ______ percent of human stomachs 50%
where in the GI tract is H. pylori found the gastric mucosa
the large intestine is an _______________ fermentation vessel, in vivo
describe the function of the microbiota in the colon use the nutrients derived from the digestion of food
most organisms are restricted to the ________________________ of the large intestine, while others are in the ____________________- most are in the LUMEN, the rest are in the MUCOSAL layers
what are the three major bacterial classes that ~98% of the human gut phylotypes Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria
in humans a higher number of Firmicutes in the gut are associated with higher body weights
an enterotype is a bacteriological ecosystems
name the three basic enterotypes in the human gut 1) enriched in Bacteroides, 2) enriched in Prevotella, 3) enriched in ruminococcus
what is the function of the microbiota in the human gut vitamin production, modification of steroids, and amino acid biosynthesis
what types of vitamins are produced in human gut by bacteria Thiamin, riboflavin, pyroxine, B12, K
what amino acids are synthesized by bacterium in the gut asparagin, glutamate, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and mor
what gases are produced by the bacteria in the gut CO2, CH4, H2
what odors are produced by bacteria in the human gut H2S, NH3, amines, indole, skatole, butyric acid
what organic acids are produced by bacteria in the gut acetic, propionic, butyric acids
what are the glycosidase reactions that are occurring in the gut Beta- Glucuronidase, Beta- galactosidase, beta, glucosidase, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase
(not a question) saliva contains antimicrobial enzymes
high concentrations of nutrients near the surface of the oral cavity promote localized microbial growth
name the anatomy of the tooth mineral matrix (enamel), surrounding the living tissue, the dentin, and the pulp
describe the microenvironment of the upper respiratory tract microbes thrive in the upper respiratory tract, the bacteria continually enters through the air during breathing,
most bacteria in the upper respiratory tract are trapped in the ______________________ ; which intern is expelled with nasal secretions or swallowed then killed in the ____________________ mucus; stomach
(not a question) the lower respiratory tract does not contain normal microbiota in healthy adults
what can cause potential pathogens in the urethra , in turn causing diseases altered conditions
what are the two main disease causing bacteria that invade the urogenital tract Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis
describe the environment in the female's vagina weakly acidic and contains significant glycogen
__________________________________ is a resident organism in the vagina, where it ferments glycogen producing lactic acid Lactobacillus acidophilus
the lactic acid in the vagina __________________ maintains a local acidic environment that prevents colonization by pathogens
(not a question) there are approximately million resident bacteria per square centimeter of skin, for a total of about 10^10 skin microorganisms covering the average adult
(not a question) the skin surface varies greatly in chemical composition and moisture content
name the three microenvironments 1) dry skin, 2) moist skin, 3) sebaceous skin
what is skin composition influenced by environmental factors, host factors, the microbiota in each microenvironment
colonization of the gut begins at birth
during vagina birth, the bacteria is transferred from the mother
what is the importance of early colonization of infants they are a source of vitamins and tend to be facultative than other obligate anaerobes
Created by: kandriot
 

 



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