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Social 20

terms, concepts, dates and names from Social 20 Unit

Aboriginal peoples a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants; includes the First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices, and spiritual beliefs.
civic citizenship in a city, region, or country For example, “civic pride” can mean pride in one’s city, region, or nation; someone who shows civic pride might be a volunteer helping organize a local sporting event.
civic nationalism nationalism based on shared political values or beliefs as a foundation for citizenship in a nation state. The ethnic, cultural, or religious background of each citizen is not important.
civic responsibility the obligation of a citizen to be involved in his or her free and democratic society. Responsibilities include being informed about the significant issues in the society, taking an active role in one’s community, and reporting crimes to the authorities.
country a territory that is an independent (self-governing) nation, that exists within clearly defined and internationally recognized borders, and whose citizens share a common set of values and beliefs
cultural diffusion the spreading of the values, customs, and traditions of one culture to other cultures
culture the learned and shared way of life of a group of people, which includes the generally accepted customs, beliefs, and values. May include: Cultural heritage, Language, Religion, Politics, Economics, Technology, Education, Art, Recreation
ethnic background the background of language, religion, and customs of one’s family
ethnic group a group of people with common racial and cultural traits such as language, religion, and customs
ethnic nationalism nationalism based on a shared common ethnic background. If identity is based on the common cultural heritage, those not part of this background are excluded.
First Nations both Status and Non-Status Indians in Canada, as defined by Canadian laws
globalization the process by which people around the world are becoming increasingly interconnected through trade, the media, and migration. Globalization has both positive and negative effects on individuals and societies.
identity the key characteristics that people use to describe who they are
ideology a theory or concept about the way in which society should be organized. An ideology may also be the belief system that is honoured by a group of people or a country.
Inuit the aboriginal people of Arctic Canada traditionally with a distinct territory, social structure, and language. Inuit live primarily in Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and northern parts of Labrador and Quebec.
linguistic identity language as a characteristic of identity. For example, a person whose first language is English will likely identify with English-speaking people. Similarly, a person whose first language is French may identify with French-speaking people.
Métis historically, the children of French fur traders and Cree women in the Prairies, and of English and Scottish traders and Dene women in the North.
multination state an independent (self-governing) nation with a population of two or more ethnic or cultural groups within clearly defined borders that are internationally recognized
nation a group of people who share a common culture with common customs, origins, history, language, and frequently religion. Members of the nation have a strong feeling of identity with the group’s culture.
nation state a territory that is an independent (self-governing) nation, that exists within clearly defined and internationally recognized borders, and whose citizens share a common set of values and beliefs
nationalism the feelings people have in identifying with their nation. These feelings generally include loyalty for and pride in their nation’s culture.
patriotism love and support for one’s country without regard for culture; nationalism refers to love of country while displaying a reverence for the nation’s culture. To use these words interchangeably is incorrect.
perspective the point of view that is shaped by one’s background and experiences. .
pluralism the preservation of the diversity of various cultural and ethnic groups inside one country. This means that every group in a country keeps its own beliefs and customs within the laws of that country.
Québécois a resident of the province of Québec. Also, this may refer specifically to a French-speaking person, most often a resident Québec, who identifies with Québec’s French-speaking majority culture.
self-government political independence; able to govern oneself independent of outside influences
social class a group of people of the same standing or rank in a society
sovereign country a country that is free from control by any other country. Has independence to make its own decisions without foreign control; that is, the country is completely self-governing. Canada was not completely sovereign until The Constitution Act of 1982.
state a territory that is an independent (self-governing) nation, that exists within clearly defined and internationally recognized borders, and whose citizens share a common set of values and beliefs
abdicate to give up a high office or responsibility. For example, “The King abdicated his throne” means he is no longer the king.
absolute monarch a king or queen who has unlimited power (autocratic power) over a territory and its people (subjects). An absolute monarch has all the decision-making power when ruling over a kingdom.
Ancien Régime (“Old Regime” in English) feudal conditions that existed in France before the French Revolution
aristocracy a small privileged class of people that were noble (high social rank) by birth. In addition to the monarchy, this class held most of the power and wealth in European feudal society.
autocratic having absolute control over people. The people have no say in their government because the ruler has complete control over the people’s lives.
clergy the officials of a religious organization or order For example, in the Catholic church, the officials are the priests, bishops, etc. In a protestant church, the clergy might be called ministers or pastors.
conservatism a belief that society should remain the way that it has been traditionally Conservatism today supports capitalism and calls for little or no government intervention in the economy.
constitution a set of rules or laws that determines how a country shall be run. It defines what the government’s structure will be, how people will be appointed or elected to the government, what land or territory will belong to the country, and how laws will be made.
alliance a joining together of countries in friendship for the mutual benefit of all members.
armistice a truce or ceasefire during a war. Shooting stops until a peace agreement is negotiated, but shooting will start again unless a peace agreement is reached.
balance of power a condition in international affairs in which competing countries have equal, or nearly equal, military and/or economic strength This condition supposedly prevents nations from dominating one another or going to war.
conscription compulsory military service. During times of conscription, men are forced to join the armed forces of their country. This policy is also known as the draft.
diplomacy the process of countries speaking to one another to make agreements peacefully with each other. Government agents called diplomats negotiate alliances, treaties, and other such agreements among countries.
emperor a male monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm
enemy alien a foreigner living in a country where a state of war exists between that citizen’s home country and the country in which they are living
enlist the process of a person joining the armed forces. In peacetime, enlistment is usually voluntary although some countries (such as Israel and Switzerland) require all male citizens of the appropriate age to enlist.
foreign policy the beliefs and methods a country uses when dealing with other countries
identity the key characteristics that people use to describe who they are
imperialism the purpose or process of a dominant country extending its control over another, weaker country or territory. This control can be economic, political, cultural, or various combinations of these. The weaker country is usually referred to as a colony.
internment the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial
militarism a policy of aggression and building large armed forces—army, navy, air force
mobilize the act of a country calling up its armed forces and preparing them for war
nation state a territory that is an independent (self-governing) nation, that exists within clearly defined and internationally recognized borders, and whose citizens share a common set of values and beliefs
national interest aspects that a particular nation views as important to achieve internationally
nationalism the feelings people have in identifying with their nation. These feelings generally include loyalty for and pride in their nation’s culture.
pacifism the belief that disputes between nations should and can be settled peacefully. This belief usually means an opposition to war or violence as a means of resolving disputes. A person with this belief is referred to as a pacifist.
perspective the point of view that is shaped by one’s background and experiences. Individuals and groups has these ways to see and understand the world.
propaganda statements, printed materials, posters, radio, television broadcasts, and movies designed to win people over to some point of view. Governments are use propaganda to influence their citizens and/or other countries to believe in their point of view.
reparation payment for war damages. If the victors in a war did not start the war, then they usually will force the defeated nations that started the war to pay for the damages caused by them during the war.
republic a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them and whose head of state is not a monarch
self-determination the freedom of a nation to make its own decisions independent of outside influences from other countries; similar to sovereignty
sovereignty freedom of a nation from control by any other nation; the independence that a nation has to make its own decisions free from foreign influences
xenophobia an unreasonable fear, distrust, or hatred of strangers, foreigners, or anything perceived as foreign or different
authoritarianism a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator and promotes strict obedience to the authority of a state or organization. The state is more important than the individual and is glorified above the individual.
autonomy independent of the laws of another state or government; self-governing
communism the political, social, and economic system of certain countries in which the state, governed by a single party without formal opposition, owns all property, controls the production and distribution of goods and services,
expansionism a nation’s practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion. This may happen through war and conquest or by political annexation of a territory.
Annexation to take control of an area of land and its inhabitants
fascism a political and economic system in which the government has complete control over society. It is a single-party dictatorship that is intensely nationalistic, racist, and militaristic.
features of fascism • Private ownership of the means of production is allowed if owners are in favour of gov't • state promotes of patriotism and duty • state keeps control over citizens’ ideological beliefs • state maintains the pageantry and glory of the past
genocide the planned, systematic destruction of a certain group of people. The ultimate goal is to kill everyone in that group.
Holocaust the genocide of European Jews and others by the Nazis during World War II. Millions of Jews, Roma People, homosexuals, people with disabilities, members of the media, and critics of the Nazi party were killed in German concentration camps
indoctrinate to teach someone systematically to accept a doctrine or opinion uncritically
inflation persistent increase in the level of consumer prices along with a persistent decline in the purchasing power of money
isolationism a policy of non-involvement in international affairs For example, the United States followed a policy of isolationism by staying out of World War II until Japan, in a surprise attack, destroyed several American naval ships stationed at Pearl Harbor.
nazism ideology of the National Socialist Party (Nazi Party) of Germany whose leader was Adolf Hitler. Nazi ideology promoted racial purity and superiority of the German people.
scapegoat an individual or group blamed for something when the fault actually lies elsewhere
Scapegoating blaming another group or individual for things they did not really do. Those that we scapegoat become objects of our aggression in work and deed.
ultranationalism extreme nationalism, especially when opposed to international cooperation
Created by: MrsPatwright



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