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Social 10 Unit 2

terms, concepts, dates and names from Social 10 Unit 2

Aboriginal people(s) the original inhabitants of a country or territory
Adam Smith a Scottish professor who wrote a book titled The Wealth of Nations. He believed free competition between producers and sellers would result in better products and services, increased investment, and higher wages for all.
apartheid a policy of racial segregation maintained in South Africa from 1948 to 1991
assimilation the process by which an ethnic group loses its distinct language and culture and becomes absorbed into the dominant group
capitalism an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of property focusing on the accumulation of wealth and competition in a free market
citizen a native or naturalized person who owes allegiance to a nation or Government
colonialism a form of imperialism where one nation dominates another politically, culturally, and economically. It usually involves extensive immigration from the colonial power to the colony with the immigrants taking over the land and business.
common good the welfare of a society in general terms.
Common good (capitalism) In a society based on capitalism, the common good is achieved by individual ownership of the means of production and individuals seeking self-interest. The government is involved only to create laws for public order and protect private ownership.
Common Good (socialism) In a society based on socialism, the common good is achieved through an equal sharing of the means of production and by individuals working for the good of everybody.
communism an ideology based on socialism created by Karl Marx. Marx believed that workers (the proletariat) should revolt against the capitalists (the bourgeoisie) and create a society where the means of production are shared equally by everyone.
cultural contact the meeting of two cultures
cultural imperialism the practice of systematically spreading the influence of one culture over others by means of physical and economic domination Cultural imperialism usually involves an assumption of cultural superiority (ethnocentrism).
cultural relativism the principle that what is good or bad can be determined only relative to oneʼs own culture What is “good” is what is socially acceptable in the norms of oneʼs own culture.
Cross-cultural sensitivity involves an understanding that each culture has its own beliefs and values. This understanding is used to make interpretations and judgements.
culture the way groups of people live A culture is created over time and shared by a group with a generally understood shared set of values and beliefs. Cultures are always changing. Some people call culture a “design for living”.
customs a long established practice or habit of a community; an unwritten and unstated rule of behaviour For example, eating with chopsticks is customary in China. Many Canadian households put up a Christmas tree.
depopulation the significant reduction of the number of people (or animals, or plants) living in a community
dominant controlling or prevailing over all others
empire a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority
Enlightenment an intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues
ethnocentrism the assumption that the culture of oneʼs own group is moral, right, and rational and that other cultures are inferior.
eurocentrism the belief that the values and experiences of European society are more important than those of other cultures.
First Nations the first people to live in Canada, currently referred to as Indigenous or Aboriginal peoples
Francophone a person who speaks French as his or her first language
globalization the process by which people around the world are becoming increasingly interconnected through trade, the media, and migration with both positive and negative effects on individuals and societies
Gradual Civilization Act, 1857 allowed for the enfranchisement (rights as a British citizen) as they spoke either French or English, were educated and of good moral character. Upon enfranchisement Natives had to choose a surname and were no longer considered to be Indigenous.
identity distinct characteristics and personality shaped by many factors. Each person has an individual identity and an identity as a member of each of the many groups (collectives) to which one belongs.
ideology doctrine, philosophy, or body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group. In Canada, capitalism is the dominant economic ideology and democracy is the dominant political ideology.
imperialism domination by one or more countries over others to gain power and wealth. It can occur through the use of weapons, economic control, or political control by a powerful nation.
Economic imperialism occurs when a powerful nation or a powerful corporation takes control of another country to make money for itself.
Cultural imperialism occurs when a dominant culture overpowers another culture.
immigration the practice of entering and becoming a permanent resident in a country where one is not a native; movement into a nation Immigrations are those who enter another country. Emigrants are those who leave their home countries.
Indian Act first enacted in 1876, it defines who is an Indian and contains the legal rights for registered Indians in Canada. The rights in the act are considered exclusive to natives and cannot be challenged as per Section 25 of the Constitution Act, 1982.
individualism a value system in which choice, personal freedom, and self-orientation are of most importance
industrialization the process of building a society whose economy is based on mass production of goods using technology Industrialization is associated with urbanization of society, division of labour, a wage economy, and growth of mass communication and mass markets
Industrial Revolution a period of rapid and major change in economies and social structure beginning in the late 18th century in England marked by the switch from hand power and small scale cottage industry to power-driven machinery and large scale factory industry
integration the joining of various ethnic groups within a society into a common society with generally accepted values A cultural group may keep its own values and traditions within the larger whole.
Indigenous inhabiting a land prior to the arrival of people from another nation. In Canada, this includes the Inuit and the First Nations peoples.
invisible hand the concept that an individual acts in his own best interest, he or she will also promote the good of the community; claimed by Adam Smith in his book, The Wealth of Nations. This concept was important in the development of capitalism.
laissez-faire literally, to leave alone, the economic policy that government economy should not interfere in the economy unless absolutely necessary.
marginalization the result of a less-dominant group taking on some of the habits and customs of the dominant society thereby becoming incompletely assimilated but no longer belonging to any cultural group
Marx, Karl (1818 – 1883) an influential German philosopher and political economist. After witnessing the terrible working conditions created by the Industrial Revolution, he wrote Das Kapital and the Communist Manifesto. He discussed history as the struggle between the classes.
Means of Production factors used to produce wealth including land (the physical land and natural resources), labour (the effort that people supply to produce goods), and capital (money and equipment such as factories and machinery).
media any form in which communication occurs
Mass media the media that are used to communicate with large numbers of people, usually at least a whole nation. This includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet. The media is a powerful force in our globalizing world.
mercantilism: an economic policy in Europe in the 16th to 18th century in which national governments increased the prosperity by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, mostly through increased tariffs (taxes) on imported goods.
Métis the descendents of aboriginal women and European men after the arrival of the French and English in Canada. The uniquely Canadian cultural group followed the fur trade and developed its own identity and was a part of the expansion into the West.
Numbered Treaties eleven treaties signed between aboriginal peoples iand the government of Canada from 1871 to 1921. They sought to extinguish native land rights in Canada in return for land to preserve traditional territory as a reserve and to provide annuity payments.
oral tradition the history and traditions of a society from people’s memories passed to succeeding generations through the spoken word
Quebec Act, 1774 an act passed by the British Parliament to create an administrative system in Canada after the conquest of New France. It gave the French Canadian complete religious freedom and restored the French for civil law.
religion a system of beliefs that involves the existence or nonexistence of at least one of a human soul, spirit, a deity, a higher being, or self after the death of one’s body
Royal Proclamation, 1763 a proclamation issued by King George III to create government administration in the new territory ceded by France to Britain. It also defined the legal status of native lands and to recognize the rights of native peoples in North America.
socialism a system that promotes the common good rather than individualism. Socialists favour gov't and co-operative ownership of economic resources, equality of economic conditions, democratic rule and management of economic and social institutions.
Social Darwinism an idea related to Darwinʼs theory of evolution that those who get ahead in society are the most fit and deserving of their position. This justified the more powerful societies colonizing less powerful nations
sovereignty the condition of a country having the authority to make independent decisions concerning its own welfare. . To be sovereign, a country must have: independence in making its own decisions; recognition by other countries of its independence.
tolerance acceptance or sympathy for beliefs or practices different from one’s own
trade the business of buying, selling, or bartering commodities among individuals, organizations, or nations
tradition an inherited, established, or customary pattern of thought, action, or behaviour (as a religious practice or a social custom)
values general beliefs about what is right, moral, and desirable
Created by: MrsPatwright
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