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Chapter 07

Sociology 3e

TermDefinition
conflict theory a theory that examines social and economic factors as the causes of criminal deviance
control theory a theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society
corporate crime crime committed by white-collar workers in a business environment
corrections system the system tasked with supervising individuals who have been arrested for, convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses
court a system that has the authority to make decisions based on law
crime a behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions
criminal justice system an organization that exists to enforce a legal code
cultural deviance theory a theory that suggest conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime
deviance a violation of contextual, cultural, or social norms
differential association theory a theory that states individuals learn deviant behaviors from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance
formal sanctions sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced
hate crimes attacks based on a person's race, religion, or other characteristics
informal sanctions sanctions that occur in face-to-face interactions
labeling theory the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society
legal code codes that maintain formal social control through laws
master status a label that describes the chief characteristics of an individual
negative sanctions punishment for violating norms
nonviolent crimes crimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of force
police a civil force in charge of regulating laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level
positive sanctions rewards given for conforming to norms
power elite a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources
primary deviance a violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual's self-image or interactions with others
sanctions the means of enforcing rules
secondary deviance deviance that occurs when a person's self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society
self-report study a collection of data acquired using voluntary response methods, such as questionnaires or telephone interviews
social control the regulation and enforcement of norms
social disorganization theory a theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control
social order an arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society's members base their daily lives
strain theory a theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptale means to reach those goals
street crime crime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public spaces
victimless crime activities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in them
violent crimes crimes based on the use of force or the threat of force
Created by: Gdefillipo
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