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Chapter 06

Sociology 3e

TermDefinition
aggregate a collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t interact or share a sense of identity
authoritarian leader a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks
bureaucracies formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality
category people who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way
clear division of labor the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform
coercive organizations organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or mental hospital
conformity the extent to which an individual complies with with group or societal norms
democratic leader a leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into action
dyad a two-member group
explicit rules the types of rules in a bureaucracy, rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized
expressive function a group function that serves an emotional need
expressive leader a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone's emotional well being
formal organizations large, impersonal organizations
group any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of identity
hierarchy of authority a clear chain of command from a professional situation
impersonality the removal of personal feelings from a professional situation
in-group a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity
instrumental function being oriented toward a task or goal
instrumental leader a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks
Iron Rule of Oligarchy the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather through collaboration
laissez-faire leader a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions
McDonaldization of Society the increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions
meritocracy a bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit-proven and documented skills
normative or voluntary organizations organizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible rewards
out-group a group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with
primary group small, informal groups of people who are closest to us
reference groups groups to which an individual compares herself
secondary groups larger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited
total institution an organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs
triad a three-member group
utilitarian organizations organizations that are joined to fill a specific material need
leadership function the main focus or goal of a leader
leadership style the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members
Created by: Gdefillipo
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