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Chap 16 - Diversity

Diversity of Bacteria

name the four phyla of the Bacteria domain 1) proterobacteria, 2) Actinobacteria, 3) firmicutes, 4) bacteroidetes
_____________ is the largest and most metabolically divers phylum, it includes more than 1/3 of characterized species, all gram-negative proteobacteria
name the six classes of the proteobacteria phylum 1) Alpha, 2) Beta, 3) Delta, 4) Gamma, 5) Epsilon, 6) Zeta
this class of the proteobacteria includes __________________: this class has ten (six major) orders, the organisms are oligotrophic, obligate/facultative aerobes, and nearly 1000 species alphaproteobacteria
name the six major orders under alphaproteobacteria 1) rhizobiales, 2) rickettsiales, 3) rhodobacterales, 4) rhodospirialles, 5) caulobacterales, 6) sphingomonadales
key generas of the Rhizobiales bartonella, methylobacterium, pelagibacter, rhizobium, agrobacterium
the _____________ order is the largest and most metabolically diverse, nine of their genera contain rhizobia Rhizobiales
describe the motabolism(s) of the organisms in the Rhizobiales order phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, symboints, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, pathogens, and chemoorganotrophs
what are rhizobia a collection of genera that forms root nodules and fix nitrogen in symbiotic association with legumes
rhizobia are typically _____________________ and _______________________ aerorbes chemoorganotrophs and obligate aerobes
_________________________ distributes the ability of rhizobiato form nodules horizontal gene transfer
what is another term for Rhizobium radiobacter Argobacterium tumefaciens
Argobacterium tumefaciens cannot form ______________ are closely related to Rhizobiales but cause __________________ disease nodules; crown gall disease
gall formation genes (are/are not) related to nodules formation genes gall formation genes and nodule formation genes ARE NOT related
"pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs" methylobacterium
where are methylobacterium found on plants, in soil, freshwater systems (in toilets and showers)
intracellular pathogens mediated by arthopod vectors bartonella
P______________________ ubique; an oligotrphic aerobic chemoorganotroph that grows in ocean photic zones Pelagibacter
the _____________ is the most abundand bacterial species on Earth P. ubique
describe the typical metabolism of Pelagibacter typically they are chemoorganotrophs and obligate aerobes
key genera in Rickettsiales are rickettsia and wolbachia
describe the metabolisms of most rickettsiales they are obligate intracellular parasites or mutualists of animals
rickettsiales have not yet been cultured in absence of host cells; therefore what is normally used in a lab setting to grow members of this order chicken eggs or host cell tissue culture
what type of human diseases does Rickettsia cause Typhus and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
how is Rickettsia transmitted ticks, fleas, lice, and mites
Rhizobiales and Rickettsiales are orders under which phylum Rhizobiales and Rickettsiales are orders of ALPHABROTEOBACTERIA
Describe Rhodobacterales and Rhodospirillales purple nonsulfur bacteria, aerobic an oxygenic phototrophs, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, denitrifiers, methylotrophs, magnetotatic bacteria
which Alphaproteobacteria order is oligotrophic and strictly aerobid chemoorganotrophs Caulobacterales
Caulobacterals form __________________ or stalks prosthecea
(not a question) Caulobacterales divide asymmetrically
describe the metabolisms of sphingomonadales divers aerobic and facultatively aerobic chemoorganotrophs, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and few obligate anaerobes
Sphingomonadales are most notable for their ability to metabolize organic compounds including aromatic environmental contaminants (bioremediation)
name the six major orders under betaproteobacteria burkholeriales, hhydrogenophilales, methylophilales, neisseriales, nitrosomonadales, rhodocyclales
what is the key genus in Burkolderiales Burkholderia
describe the metabolism of Burkholderia strict respiratory chemoorganotrophs, all species grow aerobically (some can grow anaerobically, some can fix nitrogen)
what species of Burkholderia is pathogenic, opportunistic hospital-aquired infections in humans, but can produce antifungal and antinematodal compounds B. cepacia
what are the key generas in the Rhodocyclales order rhodocyclus and zoogloea
this is a member of the Rhodocyclales order, it is a purple nonsulfur bacterium, that grows best as a photoheterotroph. however, it can also grow s a photoautotroph and grow by respiration rhodocyclus
describ the metabolism of a zooloea it is an aerobic chemoorganotroph that produces a thick capsulcausing flocculation (settling out of solution)
which Rhodocyclales is important in aerobic wastewater treatment Zooloea
name the key genera in the Neisseriales order Chromobacterium and Neisseria
describe the type of metabolism exhibited by most members of the Neisseriales order diverse chemoorganotrophes
this genera of the Neisseriales ordere is commonly isolated from animals, some can be pathogenic. but it is always cocci Neisseria
describe Chromobacterium members of the Neisseria order, they are rod-shaped, facultative aerobe, some species produce antimicrobial and anctioxidant pigment called violacein
name the type of pigment that is found in the Chromobacterium genera violacein
Hydrogenophilales, methyophilales, nitrosomondales orders are all part of what phylum hydrogenophilales, methylophilales, and nitrocomonadales are all part of the BETAPROTEOBACTERIA phyla
name three Betaproteobacteria orders that have fairly specialized metabolic capabilities including chemolithotrophs and metylotrophs. But most are obligate aerobes and autotrophs Hydrogenophilales, methylophilales, and Nitrosomadales
describe the metabolism of the Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus it is an obligate aerobe that can grow as a chemolithotroph using H2 for respiration, it is also chemoorganotrophic on simble carbon sources
what is the metabolism of Methylophiles obligate and facultative methylotrophs
Nitrosomonadales have a chemolithotrophic metabolism. What major chemical do they metabolize Nitrosomonadales oxidize ammonia
name to of the major chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidizers in the Nitroxomondales order Nitrosomona and Nitrospira
what is the largest and most diverse class of the Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
this order is a member of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum and is known as enteric bacteria Enterobacteriales
describe the characteristics of the enterobacteriales facultative aerobic, gram-negative, nonsporulating rods, that are sometimes made motile by peritrichous flagella
what kind of tests are used to discriminated enteric from other bacteria oxidase (negative) and catalase (positive) tests
describe the nutritional requirements, metabolism, and end products of Enterobacteriales Enterobacteriales have relatively simple nutritional requirements, they can ferment simple sugars and have a variety of end products
(not a question) many Enterobacteriales are pathogenic and many are industrially important bacteria
Enteric bacteria can be separated into two broad groups by the type and proportion of fermentation products generated by anaerobic fermentation of glucose Mixed acid fermentation and 2,3 butanediol fermentation
in _______________________ fermentation the main products include acetic, lactic, and succinic acid formed in significant amount: ethanol, Co2, and H2 are also formed with Co@ and H2 in equal amounts via formate hydrogenlyase Mixed-acid fermentation
name some Enterobacteriales members that use Mixed-acid fermentation Escherichia, Salmonella, Shingella, cirtobacter, Proteus, Yersinia
what are the main products of 2,3-butanediol fermentation Butanediol, ethanol, CO2, H2 are main products and smaller amounts of acids are produced
name some members of the Enterobacteriales that use the 2,3-butanediol fermentation Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Erwinia, Serratia
what type of fermentation does Proteus take part in Proteus is an Mixed-Acid Fermenter
describe the characteristics of the Proteus Mixed-acid fermenter, highly motile, produces urease, distantly related to E. coli, frequent cause of UTI's in humans, and capable of swarming
describe swarming when looking at a Petri dish, the capability of microorganisms to created concentric rings around food
Enterobacter aerogenes are typically found where water, sewage, and the intestinal tract in warm-blooded animals
what type of infection can E. aerogenes cause in humans UTI's
Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) occasionally causes what pathogen pneumonia
where is K. pneumoniae normally found and what is the metabolism of most strains most strains fix nitrogen and are found in soil and water
Serratia forms a red pyrrole-containing pigments called ____________________ prodigionsins
where are Serratia normally found water, soil,, and intestinal tracts of insects and vertebrates
(not a question) Serratia may cause infection
describe the pseudomonadales metabolism aerobic respiratory chemoorganotrophs
in an oxidase test, the Pseudomonadale would test (positive/negative) and in the catalase test is would test (positive/negative) Pseudomonadales are POSITIVE for Oxidase and POSITIVE for Catalase
some Pseudomonadales can respire anaerobically with ______________ and an electron acceptor Nitate
Pseudomonadales are pathogenic in (animals only/plants only/both) Pseudomonadales are pathogenic in BOTH animals and plants
describe the characteristics of pseudomonad: gram-negativ, polarly flagellated, aerobic rod that uses divers carbon sources
Pseudomona aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) are associated with what pathogens opportunistic urinary and respiratory disease
which Pseudomonas are associated with plant pathogens P. syringae and P. marginalis
describe the metabolism of Vibrionales facultatively aerobic rods and curved rods that ferment, and are mostly aquadic
in an oxidase test Vibrionales test Vibrionales test POSITIVE in an Oxidase test
Vibriona cholera (V. cholera) causes _______________ in humans , but not in other hosts Cholera
Vibriona parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) causes ________________ in humans gastroenteritis
name some of the key generas of the Deltaproteobacteria Bdellovibrio, Myxococcus, Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Syntrophobacter
name the bacterial predators in the Deltaproteobacteria phyla Myxococcales and Bdellovibrionales
name the metal and sulfur reducers in the Deltaproteobacteria phyla Desulfuromonadales, Desulfovibrionales, Desulfobacterales, Desulfarculales, Syntrophobacterales
name the key genera in the Epsilonproteobacteria, these microorganisms have important ecological roles Campylobacter, Helicobacter
these genera are members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, they are gram-negative, oxidase and catalase positive and motile spirilla Campylobacter and Helicobacter are gram-negative, oxidase and catalase positive, and motile spirilla
Campylobacter and Helicobacter (are/are not) pathogenic to humans and animals Campylobacter and Helicobacter ARE pathogenic to humans and animals
describe the Campylobacter and Helicobacter metabolism Campylobacter and Helicobacter hare microaerophilic
in humans, Campylobacter causes what pathogenic disease gastroenteritis resulting in bloody diarrhea
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes what pathogenic disease in humans chronic and acute gastritis and peptic ulcers
This member of the Epsilonproteobacteria is non-pathogenic, free-living microaerophiles that live in freshwater and marine habitats Sulfurospirillium
in anaerobic respiration, Sulfurospirillium uses what elements as an electron acceptors sulfur, selenite, and arsenate
this Epsilonproteobacteria, is an anaerobic bacterium that is isolated from bovine (cow) rumen (first division of the stomach) Wolinella
what elements does Wolinella use as electron acceptors furmarate or nitrate
what elements are electron donors in Wolinella H2 of formate
what types of rRNA doe Epsilonproteobacteria have 16S
where can Epsilonproteobacteria be found ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments where sulfur-cycling is ongoing
Name the key genera of Lactobacillales Lactobacillus and Streptococcus
Lactobacillus and Streptococcus are bacteria that are fermentative and produce what product lactic acid
what are the industrial functions of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus food production and preservation
describe some characteristics of the Lactobacillales nonsporulating, oxidase and catalase negative rods or cocci, that are exclusively fermentative, they obtain energy only by substrate-level phosphorylation
what are Aerotolerant anaerobes not sensitive to oxygen
what is a Homofermentative Lactobacillale a Lactobacillale that produces only lactic acid
what is a Heterofrementative Lactobacillale a Lactobacillale that produces ethanol, CO2, and lactate
describe the Lactobasillus bacteria rod-shaped and grow in chains, they are common in dairy products, and they are resistant to acidic conditions (can grow in a pH=4)
Streptococcus/Lactococcus are (heterofermentative/homofermentative) coccoid lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus/Staphococcus are HOMOFERMENTATIVE coccoid lactic acid bacteria
Streptococcus grow in chains or tetrads that are important in.... buttermilk production, silage, and other fermented products and can form dental cavities
Lactococcus is significant in which food Lactococcus is significant in DAIRY
Enterococcus originates where feces
Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus are obligate anaerobes that ferment ___________________ instead of sugar proteins
there are two groups of Streptococci the ______________ which cause strep throat and _______________ which cause dental caries pyogenes (Strep throat) and viridans (S. mutans)
Leuconostoc are (homofermentative/heterofermentative) and produce flavors (diacetly and acetoin) Leuconostoc are HETEROFERMENTATIVE
the genus Listeria, are in the order of Bacillales
Where is Listeria found mostly in soil, opportunistic pathogens that cause foodborne illness
describe some characteristics of Listeria gram-positive, catalase positive rod-shape, facultatively aerobic chemoorganotrophs
what types of temperatures will Listeria grow at low temperatures (like refrigerated foods)
describe the metabolism of Staphylococcus facultative aerobe that respires but can ferment
how does Staphylococcus grow Stafphylococcus grows in clusters
what are some characteristics of Staphylococcus catalase-positive (which distiguish it from Stroptococcus and lactic acid bacteria), they are resistant to reduced water potential and tolerated drying and high salt, gram-positive, many are pigmented,
(not a question) Staphylococcus are common commensals and parasites of humans and animals that occasionally cause serious infections
name a couple of notable Staphylococcus species S. epidermidis and S. aureus
what is the metabolism of Sarcina obligate anaerobes
what are some characteristics of Sarcina catalase negative, divides into three perpendicular planes, extremely acid tolerant (pH=2)
where can Sarcina inhabit stomachs in monogastric animals
what is the significance of Sarcina dividing in three perpendicular planes it gives rise to packets of eight or more cells
all endospore-forming bacteria are in the genus (genera) Bacillales and Clostridiales
how are Clostridiales and Bacillales distinguished on the basis of cell morphology, shape and cellular position of endospore, and relationship to O2, and energy metabolism
where are Bacillales and Clostridiales usually found Bacillales and Clostridiales are found in soil
(not a question) Pathogenic species are saprophytic and infect animals incidentally
why are endospores advantageous because of various nutrient levels, temperature, and water activity
Bacillus and Paenibacillus produce _______________________ that breakdown polymers (i.e. polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and lipids_ hydrolytic enzymes
(not a question) many bacilli produce antibiotics
the types of proteins produced by Paenibacillus popilliea and Bacillus thuringiensis kill ________________ insects
Clostridium lacks a respiratory chain, so how does it produce ATP substrate level phosphorylation
describe the metabolism of Saccharolytic Saccharolytic ferments sugars
describe the metabolism of Proteolytic Proteolytic ferments amino acids or amino acid pairs (Strickland reactions)
Clostridium are usually found where anaerobic pockets in the soil or mammalian intesinal tracts
pathogenic Clostridium cause botulism, tetanus, and gangrene
Sporosarcina are unique among endospore formers because _______________ the cells are cocci instead of rods
describe the characteristics of Sporosarcina cocci cells (spherical to oval), strictly aerobic
the major species of Sporosarcina is ____________ which is very alkaline-tolerant Sporosarcina ureae (S. ureae)
name the key genera of the Tenericutes Mycoplasma and Spiroplasma
some characteristics of the Tenericutes (The Mycoplasmas) they lack cell walls (gram-negative), some of the smallest organisms , best characterized group is Mycoplasma, related to Firmicutes, live in close association with animal and plant hosts, small genome
what are some properties of mycoplasmas absence of cell walls, resistant to osmotic lysis, contain sterols (make cytoplasmic membranes more stable than others), some contain lipoglycans (which stabilize cytoplasmic membrane and facilitate attachment to receptors)
how do mycoplasma colonies grow (what do they resemble) look like "fried eggs"
what are some of the metabolisms of mycoplasmas strict aerobes, facultative aerobes, and obligate aerobes, media for culture is typically quite complex
describe the characteristics of Spiroplasma helical or spiral-shaped cells, without a cell wall and flagella, use rotary/screw-like/undulating motility, isolated from ticks hemolymph and gut of insects, vascular plants and insects that feed on these fluids and plant surfaces, can cause diseases
name some key genera of Actinobacteria anthrobacter, cornebacterium, propionibacterium
describe the characteristics of actinobateria rod-shaped to filamentous, usually aerobic inhabitants of soil/plants, mlostly harmless commensals with the exception of Mycobacterium,
Coryneform bacteria is part of which class of bacteria Actinobacteria
describe some of the characteristics of Coryneform bacteria gram-positive, aerobic, non-motil, rod-shapped, formed club-shaped, irregularly shaped, or V-shaped (snapping division cell arrangements
describe Corynebacterium extremely diverse, including animal and plants pathogens and saprophytes and some pathogens
describe Arthrobacter member of the Coryneform bacteria, primarily in soils, conversion from rod to coccus and back, resistant to desiccation and starvation
where was Propionic acid bacteria first discovered Swiss cheese by Robert Koch
describe Propionic acid bacteria characteristics gram-positive anaerobes that ferment lactic acid, carbs, and polyhydroxy alcohols. they have metabolic strategy called secondary fermentation
what is secondary fermentation a form of obtaining energy from fermation produces produced by other bacteria
describe the characteristics of Mycobacterium common in soils, mostly harmless, Pathogens include TB, rod-shaped, exhibited acid-fastness (mycolic acids)
Mycobacterium is not readily Gram stained because of _________________________________ high surface lipid content
Mycobacterium is separated into two groups; name them slow-growing and fast-growing
describe the colonies of Mycobacterium tight, compact, and wrinkled
the virulent of Mycobacterium _________________________ is correlated to cordlike structure tuberculosis
the cordlike structure related to _______________ glycolipid on cell surface of Mycobacterium cord factor
Actinomycetes are filamentous, aerobic gram-________________ bacteria common in soil Actinomycetes are gram-POSITIVE
Actinomycetes produce __________________ (filaments), forming _______________ analogous to mycelium of fungi hyphae (filaments) and mycelium
Aerial hyphae of Actinomycetes spores for _____________ and ____________ survival and dispersal
Streptomyces have over ___________ species 500
Streptomyces spores are called ________________ conidia
describe the ecology of Streptomyces found in soil, responsible for earthy odor (geosmin)
_________% of all isolated Streptomyces produce antibiotics, 50%
about how many distinct antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces over 500 antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces
Genomes of Streptomyces are (large/small) Streptomyces genomes are LARGE
describe the characteristics of Bacteriodales primarily obligately anaerobe fermenters, commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals, dominant bacterium in humans, can also be associated with bacteremia
what is bacteremia bacteria in blood
what is the function of Bacteriodes thetaiotaomicron (B. thetaiotaomicron) to degrade polysaccharides in human intestines. synthesize sphingolipids (abundant in mammalian tissue)
describe Flavobacterials and Sphingobacteriales typically anaerobic and facultatively aerobic chemoorganotrophs, gram-negative, saccharolytic rods moves by gliding, found mostly in soils and aquatic habitates
describe the Flavobacterium found primarily in aquatic environments and food/food-processing plants, mostly obligate aerobes, frequently yellow pigmented, rarely pathogenic
Flavobacterium meningosepticum (F. meningosepticum) are pathogenic and can infect ____________________________ infant humans and several fish
what type of temperature do some Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacterials grow at psychrophilic or psychrotolerant
describe some characteristics of Sphingobacteriales phenotypically similar to Flavobacteriales, able to degrade a wide range of complex polysaccharides, requires complex media for growth and is not cellulolytic, common in soil and freshwater, and pathogenic
how is Sphingobacteriales different from Cytophaga because it requireds a complex media for laboratory growth that is not cellulolytic
describe Clamydiae obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotes, small cocci with distinct developmental cycle, small genomes
name the two types of Chlamydiae elementary body and reticulate body
describe the elementary body cells of Chlamydiae small, dense cell resistant to drying and means of dispersal
describe the reticulate body cells of Chlamydiae vegetative form divides by binary fission
Parachlamydia acanthamoebae mostly infects __________________, can also weakly infect humans free-living ameobae
what is the best studied human species of Chlamydiae (what is the common name for it) Chlamydiae and Chlamydophila
Chlamydophila psittaci causes psittacosis in birds and humans
Chlamida trachomatis causes blindness in humans and STD's
what are the molecular and metabolic properties of Chlamydiae biochemically limited, some eukaryotic genes, could experience horizontal transfer from host to bacterium
describe some characteristics of Planctomycetes gram-negative, divide by budding (stalked or appendaged), cells arranged in rosettes, have S-layer in cell envelope, contain intracellular compartments resembling eukaryotic organells
describe the compartmentalization in Planctomycete they produce a structure enclosed by a nonunit membrane called a pirellulosome containing a nucleoid, ribosomes, and other cytoplasmic components
describe the compartmentalization in Gemmata nucleoid is surrounded by invaginations of cell membrane
the ______________________ found in Brocadia anammoxidans catalyzes anaerobic oxidation of ammonia Annammoxosome
describe the metabolism of Verrucomicrobia aerobic to facultative aerobic bacteria that ferments sugars
what is the metabolism of the Methylacidiphilum aerobic methanotrophs
Verrucomicrobia can be symbiotic with ______________ protists
where do Verrucomicrobia inhabic freshwater and marine environments as well as forest/agricultural soils
Prostecobacter contain two genes homologous to ______________ genes in eukaryotes tublin-encoding
Created by: kandriot



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