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Geography Chp 2

Vocabulary for test

crust thin layer of rock making up the earth's surface
hydrosphere the water part of the earth including rivers, lakes, and oceans
lithosphere the solid rock portion of the earth's surface
atmosphere the layer of gases immediately surrounding the earth; the air we breathe
biosphere where plants and animals live; it includes all the other spheres
inner core solid iron and nickel, 800 miles thick, can be up to 12,000 degrees
mantle a thick layer of rock between the crust and the core
Alfred Wegener presented the idea of the Continental Drift theory that says earth used to be one big continent before drifting apart
outer core liquid iron and nickel; 1,410 miles thick, can be up to 7,200 degrees
current water circulating like a river in the ocean
wave water in the ocean like a swell or ridge made by the wind
tide the rise and fall of the ocean created by the gravitational pull of the moon or sun
evaporation the process of turning water into vapor or a gas
condensation water changing from a vapor or gas to a liquid
precipitation rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground
hydrologic cycle the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth
ground water the water held in the pores of rocks
canyon a deep valley with steep sides
delta forms at the mouth of a river from the sediment that is carried by the river
glacier large mass of ice that moves slowly
plain area of land that does not vary in elevation
island piece of land completely surrounded by water
mountain high elevation of the earth's surface
peninsula land that has water on 3 sides
plateau an area of flat land that is higher than the surrounding area
relief the difference in elevation of a landform from the lowest point to the highest
topography combined characteristics of landforms and their distribution in a region
Sally Ride America's first female astronaut who became an instant believer in plate tectonics when she was in space
convection currents a current that results when lighter (less dense) warm material rises while heavier (more dense) cool material sinks
tectonic plates large moving pieces of the earth's lithosphere
fault a fracture in the earth's crust
earthquake occurs when tectonic plates grind or slip past each other at a fault causing a violent, shaking movement of the earth
focus where an earthquake begins
epicenter the point directly above the focus of an earthquake
Richter Scale uses information from a seismograph to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
tsunami a very large wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake which can travel very far and cause damage
volcano formed when magma, gases, and water from the lower part of the crust or mantle erupt and pour out of cracks in the earth's surface
magma molten rock material formed when solid rock in the earth's crust or mantle melts
lava magma that has reached the earth's surface (flows out of a volcano)
Ring of Fire an area around the rim of the Pacific Ocean with a lot of active volcanoes
Created by: carolsawyer
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