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Biology Unit One

Unit one flashcards for biomolecules

TermDefinition
Polymer a large molecule consisting of many smaller sub-units bonded together
Carbohydrate biomolecule that provides short-term energy and sturctural support for your cells. Found in sugary and starchy foods.
Lipid biomolecule that provides long term energy, insulation, and cell structure. Found in fatty foods, butter, and margrine.
Protein Made up of amino acids. Provide energy and sturcture, and body tissue repair. Found in Meats like beef and poultry, eggs. Nuts, dried beans, peas and lentils.
Nucleic Acid Polymers made up of monomers called neculotides. There are two types: DNA, and RNA.
Atom basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements
Monomer is a sub-unit of a polymer. Mono means one.
Element a pure substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means
Molecule a group of atoms bonded together, and the smallest fundamental unit that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Compound a chemical substance that contains many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element
Atomic Number is the number if protons found in the nucleus if every atom of that element
Mass Number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus.
Atomic Weight the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units (amu)
Valance Electron an electron on the outer shell of an atom that can participate in chemical reactions
Electron a stable subatomic particle with a negative charge of electricity
Proton a stable subatomic particle in the nuclei of an atom with a positive charge of electricity
Neutron a subatomic particle, with about the same mass as a proton, that has no electrical charge and is present in all atomic nuclei except those of hydrogen
Isotope each of two or more forms of the same element that can contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties ( a radioactive form of an element)
Radioisotope radioactive isotopes of an element; can also be defined as atoms that contain an unstable combination of neutrons and protons or excess energy in their nucleus.
Electron Configuration the arrangement of electrons in energy levels of atomic nucleus
Bond the physical phenomenon of chemical substances being held together by attraction to each other through sharing, as well as exchanging, of electrons- or electrostatic forces.
Polar bond atoms share electrons unevenlly and cause them to create polls.
Nonpolar bond share atoms evenly and do no create polls
Hydrogen bond this is when molecules orient themselves so that the negative side of that atom faces the positive side of a hydrogen atom. They are weak and break often.
Solvent a molecule with the ability to dissolve other molecules.
Solute a molecule that can be or is dissolved by another molecule when creating a solution.
Hydrophobic Substances that repel water. They sepeerate from water when you atempt to mix them. EX. Oil
Hydrophilic Substances that like water and become a solute to water. They are attracted to water.
Amino Acid The smaller units that make up proteins. They form covalent bonds called peptide bonds.
Nucleotide a compound consisting of a neculoside and a phosphate group linked to the neculoside. Necleotides form the basic units that make up neucleic acids such as DNA. Consist of a neuclobase, 5 carbon-sugar, and one or more phosphate groups.
Necleoside consits of a neclobase and a 5 carbon-sugar.
Peptide bond bonding two or more amino acids. THey lose the water molecule and they become dehydrated.
Covalent Bond formed when electrons exchange between nonmetals
Non-covalent Bond formed when elctrons exchange between metals
Ionic bond formed between metal and nonmetal electrons when they exchange the valance electrons.
DNA hereditary material passed down from parents. Structure is double stranded. Contains a phosphate group, sugar(deoxyribose), and a base which include Cytosine- guanine, and Adenine-thymine
RNA The RNA helps the DNA it is single stranded and its basic units are necleotides. They contain a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose), and a base of either Cytosine- guanine, Adenine- uracil.
Saturated Fat The bad fat that can clog your arteries if you eat too much of it.
Saccaride the sugars that make up carbohydrates.
Specific heat (water) water resists temperature change, so it might still be cold on a hot day, or warm on a cold day. This is why it is so hard to boil water.
Why is water the univeral Solvent? Water, the Universal solvent. Water does a great job dissolving things due to the fact that it is formed by a polar bond.
Created by: Samantha Machado
 

 



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