Normal Size Small Size show me how
AP HUG unit 1 vocab
|a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
|the built landscape is represented by those features and patterns reflecting human occupations and use of natural resources
|the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contribution to the cumulative cultural landscape. this is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how human interact with their surroundings.
|a combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation
|the frequency with which something occurs in space
|total number of objects in an area- used to compare distribution of population in different countries
|number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture
|the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.
|the place from which innovation originates
|spread of an idea through physical movement from one place to another
|the spread of an idea from one place to another in a snowballing process
|spread of an idea from nodes/people of authority to other people/places
|rapid, widespread diffusions of a characteristic throughout a region
|spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
|information contained in the relative position of one point with respect to another point without the distance information.
|the measurement of the physical space between places
|exact measurement of physical space between two places.
|the arrangement of something across earth's surface
|a nineteenth - and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences.
|the position that something occupies on earth's surface
|The exact position of an object or place, measured within some other place
|Position on Earth’s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is west of 394).
|physical character of a place
|is the location of a place relative to other places
|a toponym is the name given to a place on earth
|the geometric arrangements of objects in space
|the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
|an area distinguished by a unique combination of features or trends
|an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
|an area organized around a node of focal point
|a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
|refers to the relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on earth
|when places are connected to each other through a network, geographers say there is a spatial interaction between them
|the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach certain location from other locations. accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured
|the relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. geographers are concerned with the various means by which connections occur
|chains of communication that connect people
|contact between two groups diminishing with increasing distance and eventually disappearing
|friction of distance
|is bases on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort. interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decline with distance.
|the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place
|(geographic information system)- a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
|a system that accurately finds precise position of something on earth
|north pole/ south pole
|north- 90 degrees north latitude south- 90 degrees south latitude
|numbering system that indicates the location of a parallel
|a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
|0 degrees latitude
|numbering system that identifies the location of each meridian on earth's surface
|is an arc drawn between the north and south poles
|international date line
|for the most part follows the 180 degree longitude- turn the clock back 24 hours if heading east, ahead 24 hours if heading west when crossing it.
|A type of map that displays one or more variables -such as population or income level - within a specific area
|A type of thematic map that transforms such space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
|Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents or births.
|A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
|Map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
|an internal representation of earths surface
|presented in three ways: fraction (1/24,000), ratio (1:24,000), or written ("1 inch equals 1 mile")
|A simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify casual relationships and to help geographers explain patterms , make decisions and predict future behaviors
|the scientific method of transferring locations on earths surface to a flat map
|the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting earth or from other long-distance methods