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sport science

revision

QuestionAnswer
Flextion Bending or decreasin the angle of a joint
extension straighting or increasing the angle of a joint
abduction The movement of the body part away from the middle of the body
adduction The movement of the body part towards the middle of the body
pronation rotation of the hand resulting in a palm down position
supination Rotation of the hand resulting in a palm up position
planterflextion The extension movement of the top of the feet away from the tibia
dorsiflextion The 'flexion' movement of the top of the feet towards the tibia
inversion The rotation of the foot with the side turned inward
eversion The rotation of the foot with the sole turned inward
5 main functions of the skeleton
Structure produces places for muscle attachment
protection protect vital organs
Movement Allows for movement for activity
Blood-cell production create a in-bone morrow
storage Of calcium and minerals for normal bodily functions
Bones
Long bones Femur ,humerus,tibia
Short bones Carpals,tarsals
Flat bones Scapulae, sternum, ribs
Irregular bones Vertabrae,sacrum
sesamoid bone patella
What is a joint joints are where 2 or more bones meet
Types of joints
Fibrous immovable
cartilaginous slightly movable
Synovial Freely movable
Synovial joint examples
Ball and socket The ball of one bone fits into the cup of the other.This allows for a larger range of movement E.g shoulder/hip joints
Hinge joint This allows for flection and extension to occur E.g Elbow joint
condyloid Similar to ball and socket except it is incapable of of rotating E.g Radoiocarpal joint and Metacarpo-phalangeal joint
saddle joint Capable of movement but rotation is limited. E.g thumb(radius)
Glidding joint Flat bone surfaces for gliding movement. E.g Inter-carpal and inter-tarsal
Definitions to know
Hyaline cartilage A shiny white substance covering the end of the bones, it helps grease the surface of the joint to allow for smooth friction and free movement
Synovial fluid This is secreted by the synovial membrane and helps to oil the join cavity
Ligaments These join bones, they act as strong ruller bones and helps prevent dislocation but stretch to allow the bones to move.
superior Higher than- e.g nose is superior to the phalanges
inferior Lower than-eg.femur is inferior to the sternum
Anterior Forward - E.g ribs are Anterior to the scapular
Posterior Back -E.g spine is posterior to ribs
Medial Middle /towards the middle -e.g the big toe is medial to the little toe
Lateral Away from middle E.g The ears are lateral to the eyes
Vertebral column
Cervical vertebrae C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7 (7)
Thoracic vertebrae T1-T12 (12)
Lumbar vertebrae L1,L2,L3,L4,L5 (5)
Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae (5)
Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae (4)
How many pairs of ribs are there 12
How many are attached ti your sternum 10 with 2 false ribs
Label skeleton
Draw and label synovial joint
Label vertebral column
Created by: Marzy101
 

 



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