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Chapter 1 Micro

QuestionAnswer
Alga a photosynthetic eukaryote, may be unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular but lack the tissues found in plants.
Antibiotic an antimicrobial agent, usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus
Archaea prokaryotic cells lacking peptidoglycan, one of the three domains
Aseptic technique Laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination
Bacteria kingdom of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by peptidoglycan cell walls, bacterium when referring to singular organism
Bacteriology The scientific study of prokaryotes, including bacteria and Archaea
Biogenesis The theory that living cells arise only from preexisting cells.
Bioremediation the use of microbes to remove an environmental pollutant.
Biotechnology the industrial application of microbes, cells, or cell components to make a useful product
Cell Theory all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from preexisting cells,
Chemotherapy treatment with chemical substances
Ecology the study of the interrelationship between organism and with their environment
Eukaryote a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane enclosed nucleus
Fermentation the enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation, and oxygen is not required
Fungus an organism that belongs to the Kingdom Fungi, a eukaryotic absorptive chemoheterotroph
Gene therapy treating a disease by replacing abnormal genes
Genetic engineering manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro, also called recombinant DNA technology
Genomics the study of genes and their function
Genus the first name of the scientific name (binomial), the taxon between family and species
Germ theory of disease the principle that microbes cause disease
Helminth a parasitic roundworm or flatworm
Immunity the body’s defenses against particular pathogenic microbes, also called specific resistance
Immunology the study of a host’s specific defenses to a pathogen
Infectious diseases a disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host and carry out at least part of their life cycle
Koch’s postulates criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious diseases
Microorganism a living organism too small to be seen with the naked eye, includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microscopic algae, also includes viruses
Molecular biology the science dealing with DNA and protein synthesis of living organisms
Mycology the scientific study of fungi
Normal microbiota the microbes that colonize a host without causing disease also called normal flora
Parasitology the scientific study of parasites (protozoa and parasitic worms)
Pasteurization the process of mild heating to kill particular spoilage microbes or pathogens
Pathogen a disease causing organism
Prokaryote a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane
Protozoan unicellular eukaryotic organisms, usually chemoheterotroph
Recombinant DNA a DNA molecule produced by recombination
Species the most specific level in the taxonomic hierarchy
Species epithet the second or species name in a scientific binomial
Spontaneous generation the idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
Synthetic drugs a chemotherapeutic agent that is prepared from chemicals in a laboratory
Virology the scientific study of viruses
Virus a submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consisting of a nucleic acid surrounding by a protein coat.