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Professional ED Test


Classical Conditioning Paring a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to get a conditioned response
Cooperative learning functions summarizer, checker, runner, recorder, supporter, observer/trouble shooter
Post reading strategies summarizing question generation graphic and semantic organization return to text
Reading Strategies monitor comprehension metacognition question answering reciprocal teaching identify text structure
Fluency components rate automacity -process time prosody-phrasing, expression
7 language functions Instrumental-express needs, get things done Interactional-make contact, form relationships Personal-express personal feelings and identity Heuristic-acquire knowledge about one's environment Regulatory-tell others what to do: Imaginative; Informative
Assessment questions Is it developmentally appropriate Does it conform to standards Are varied methods being used Does it provide sufficient data Does it reflect instruction
Types of questions Prompting Probing Focusing Redirecting
Lesson cycle model focus explanation check understanding guided practice closure independent practice
Maximum sizes: Kindergarten Grades 4-8 Grades 9-12 18 22 25
Scaffolding support and assistance provided for learning and problem solving Vygotsky: Self Regulation and Private Speech
Knowledge buzz words define, fill in the blank, identify, label, list, match, memorize, name,recall, spell, state, underline
Comprehension buzzwords convert, describe, explain, interpret, paraphrase, put in order, restate, rewrite, summarize, trace
Application Buzzwords apply, compute, conclude, construct, demonstrate, draw, find out, give an example, illustrate, make, operate, show, solve, state a principle, use
Analysis buzzwords analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, debate, deduce, determine the factors, diagnose, diagram, differentiate, dissect, distinguish, examine, infer, specify
Synthesis buzzwords change, combine, compose, construct, create, design, find an unusual way, formulate, generate, invent, originate, plan, pretend, produce, reconstruct, rearrange, reconstruct, reorganize, revise, suggest, suppose, write, visualize
Evaluation buzzwords appraise, choose, compare, conclude, decide, defend, evaluate, give your opinion, judge, justify, prioritize, rank, rate, support, value
Knowledge objectives student can recall and recognize information concepts and ideas in the form in which they were learned.
Comprehension objectives student can grasp and interpret prior learning
Application objetives student can transfer selected information to a real life problem or a new task
Analysis objectives students can examine, take apart, classify, predict, and draw conclusions
Synthesis objective students can create, combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into something new
Evaluate objectives student can appraise, assess, and criticize, based on specific criteria
Knowledge definition remembering memorizing recognizing and recalling
Comprehension definition interpreting and understanding meaning stating or describing in one's own words
Application definition applying information to produce results, transferring learning ro a new context or problem solving
Analysis definition subdividing or breaking down of a stimulus or concept to show how it's put together.
Synthesis definition the creation of a unique product that might be verbal, abstract, or physical in form, putting together concepts to form a whole.
Evaluation definition judging, making value decisions about a phenomenon, idea or stimulus
Onset the beginning consonant sound of a word
Rime the vowels or consonants following the onset of a word
Field dependent processes info holistically sees relational concepts more influenced by peers likes working in groups
Field independent focus on parts before the whole, passive in social situations, less influenced by peers likes working alone
4 Strands Educators are assessed on: Planning Learning Implementation Evaluation
Brown vs the BOE ended segregation in schools
Title IX 1972 prohibits sex discrimination or harassment in schools
Plyler vs Doe denying school enrollment to illegal immigrant children violates equal protection clause of the 14 amendment
West Virginia BOE vs Barnette students can't be forced to salute the flag
section 504 rehabilitation act 1973 schools can't discriminate against students with disabilities
Maslow hierarchy of needs Physiological Safety Love and belonging Esteem Self Actualization
Accommodation (Piaget) modify current schema or create new schema to take new information into account
3 types of knowledge that children acquire (Piaget) Social Physical Logical
3 modes of learning (Bruner) Enactive- interacting with objects in the environment Iconic-use of images and graphics Symbolic-using symbols and words to represent concepts
3 parts of an instructional objective Action Conditions Level of Mastery
The 5E lesson model Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate
Assimilation (Piaget) fitting new info into existing schema
Kohlburg and Gillian 3 stages of morality Pre Conventional-obey for selfish reasons Conventional-obey for social acceptance reasons Post Conventional- obey because of personal values
Domains of Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
Morpheme smallest unit of meaning
grapheme written form of a language
morphology study of words patterns and how words are formed
Phoneme smallest unit of meaningful sound
Phonology study of speech sounds
Semantics the meaning of words
function the intended use of a language
phonemic awareness the awareness of sound in spoken language only
Phonics teaches the relationship between graphemes and phonemes (written and spoken language)
decoding sounding out words
Types of play (Piaget) onlooker play solitary play parallel play associative play cooperative play
Stages of play Functional play-explore environment Symbolic play- use materials to represent objects 2-5 Games with rules play 4+
Stages of morality (Piaget) Heteronomuos- rules are unchanging and unbreakable, obeyed out of fear of punishment, will tattle Autonomuos-will challenge rules and recognize that rules are based on mutual agreement
Gardener multiple intelligences verbal/linguistic body/kinethetic mathematical/logical naturalistic visual/spacial interpersonal intrapersonal
Eric Erickson Critical Social Crises at each stage of life trust vs mistrust autonomy vs doubt initiation vs guilt industry vs inferiority identity vs role confusion intimacy vs isolation generativity vs stagnation integrity vs despair
ELL Codes LY-currently in the ESOL program LF-exited ESOL program within 2 years LZ-exited ESOL program more than 2 years ago ZZ-non ELL student
ELL Acronyms CELLA CALP BICS FEP SLA CELLA-comprehensive English language learning assessment CALP-cognitive academic language proficient BICS-basic interpersonal communication skills ESE-exceptional student education FEP-fluent English proficient SLA-second language learner
Piaget's cognitive stages of development sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational
Sensorimotor stage 0-2 gain object permanence learn to distinguish themselves from the external world
Preoperational stage 2-6 develop symbolic thought lack reversibility and conservation can't distinguish appearance from reality
Concrete operational stage 7-11 can take on another's point of view have transitivity can think logically about the concrete
formal operational stage 11+ can induce and deduce can think abstractly
Reading research findings Phonics helps all students direct instruction is better than discovery poor readers have weak phonics an unbalanced strategies phonemic awareness is needed for phonics phonics improves spelling good readers rely less on context clues
Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition Acquisition Learning Monitor Hypothesis Natural Order Hypothesis Input Hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis
Acquisition learning hypothesis (Krashen) language learning is both conscious and subconscious
Monitor hypothesis (Krashen) conscious learning only used to monitor natural attempts
Natural Order hypothesis (Krashen) rules and structure acquired in a predictable order
Input Hypothesis (Krashen) acquisition requires input slightly higher than current ability
Affective filter hypothesis (Krashen) emotions can create blocks to acquisition
Language development stages Preproduction-silence early production-words speech emergence- complete thoughts intermediate fluency- complete sentences and discourse advanced fluency-CALP- cognitive academic language proficiency
Language development Preproduction students listens to new language but rarely speaks it ~500 words
Language development Early production 6months student uses one word or short phrases to communicate receptive and active vocabulary ~1000 words
Language development Speech emergence 1-3 years student uses phrases and short sentences to express complete thoughts receptive voc ~7000 words expressive voc ~3000 words
Language development Intermediate fluency ~4 years student uses basic interpersonal communication skills and is beginning to develop academic language skills receptive voc ~12000 words expressive voc ~6000 words
Language development Advanced fluency ~5 years student has developed academic language proficiency and has likely let the ESOL program
Physical Milestones age 3 walk without watching feet run smoothly spread with a knife copy circles; push buttons; do simple puzzles; wash hands unassisted
Physical Milestones age 4 walk heel to toe; toe to heel and backward. cut on a line print some letters, copy rectangles, fold paper and crease when shown. catch bounced ball, make simple drawings, button, zip, snap, lace clothes, cut easy foods with a knife.
Physical Milestones age 5 run with ease, run on toes, hop on one foot, skip, print words and numbers, cut with scissors, copy triangles, dress self, tie a bow, color in lines
Physical Milestones age 6-7 devel. gross motor skills (run, jump, etc) eyes can track in a circle, outgrow far farsightedness but not ready for sustained close work. can copy diamonds and do small printing lose baby features and lose front teeth, grow mainly in legs and arms.
Physical Milestones ages 8-10 show physical endurance devel fine motor skills; give attn to details, write in cursive, onset of adolescent growth spurt in girls some girls outgrow boys, girls more mature than boys
Physical Milestones ages 11-13 fully developed fine motor skills. longer, leaner faces, most of permanent teeth, puberty for girls, onset of adolescent growth for boys; boys physically ahead of girls
Physical Milestones Adolescents irregular weight gain develop secondary sex characteristics
Psychosocial characteristics age 3 acquired self identity and gender awareness, will play with others instead of beside them, starts to understand that others have feelings, learning to take turns, like silly humor, repetition, short attention spans
Psychosocial characteristics age 4 can describe self in simple terms, has racial/cultural identity, self-centered, enjoys group activities, tend toward same sex friends and gender specific toys, enjoys repetition. girls set up rules for play, boys less organized, aggressive, boisterous
Psychosocial characteristics age 5 enjoys repetition, wants to be accepted by adults, can play simple boardgames, will tattle, chooses own friends, cooperative play, interest in outside world, lives in a world of imagination, spontaneous and uninhibited.
Psychosocial characteristics age 6-7 can take on other's perspective, overestimates abilities, highly competitive, enjoys imitating, same sex friends at school, imaginative play, interest in games with rules, growing social interest, wants to fit in
Psychosocial characteristics age 8-10 more realistic about abilities, very curious, prejudices well established, interested in what's happening in the outside world, rely on opinions from family, pressure to conform, might develop hero worship
Psychosocial characteristics age 11-15 challenges authority, social life shifts from family to friends, wants to investigate real life problems, sensitive, easily offended, feels watched/judged needs peer approval, tends to form cliques, idealistic, personal and invincibility fable
Psychosocial characteristics age 15-18 decreased resistance to authority, less egocentric, interested in dating, mixed sex friends, increased autonomy, turns to friends fr advice, family for major decisions, interact with parents as people, risk taking behavior, girls more mature than boys
Marzano's Instruction strategies ID similarities and differences summarize, take notes reinforce effort, provide recognition hw / practice non-linguistic representation cooperative learning set objectives, provide feedback generate hypotheses cues questions advance organizers
Marzano's effective teacher strategies set goals provide feedback help students interact w/ new knowledge provide students w/ simulations, low stakes competition maintain relationships w/ students, notice when they aren't engaged est. and maintain rules communicate high expectations
Created by: Disinchanted
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