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IB US Hist Ch 13-15

Manifest destiny reflected both the burgeoning pride that characterized American Nationalism in the mid 19th century and the idealistic vision of perfection that was around at the time. It rested on the idea that America was destined by God to expand coast to coats
Expansionism reflected the idea of American expanding to include all the space possible for its democracy to spread. It was a belief that meant Mexicans and Indians were inferior and should be pushed out of the way; American did not view this as imperial behavior
Stephen Austin established the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1820. He and his followers wanted more autonomy within Mexico, but with Santa Anna ruling Mexico, he and his followers decided to fight for independence
Oregon Country included all of the territory from the present south boundary of Oregon to the present southern boundary of Alaska; Both Britain and US claimed it
Joint Occupation treaty in 1818 that allowed citizens of England and US equal access to Oregon territory; lasted for 20 years
James Polk most people consider 1844 election to have been a battle between Clay and Van Buren, but instead this president got the Democratic nomination as a “dark horse” candidate; expanded more US territory than any other President besides Thomas Jefferson
Rio Grande/Nueces River Texas claimed that after it won its independence from Mexico, the border stretched down to the Rio Grande, but Mexico said that the border was at the Nueces River; started the Mexican American War after James Polk agreed with Texans and Mexicans attacked
John Slidell sent by Polk to try and purchase California to Mexico, but Mexico wouldn’t sell it
Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo treaty that ended Mexican-American War in 1848; America got all of the disputed territory and all of the West, but had to take over the debts to Mexican citizens living in the territory and paid Mexico $15 Million
Wilmot Proviso proposed in 1846, would have barred slavery in territory acquired from Mexico, but failed in the Senate
Popular Sovereignty allow for people of each state to decide the status of slavery in the territory
Compromise of 1850 provisions include California admitted as a free state, territorial governments decided by popular sovereignty in Mexican territory, Texas yield in boundary dispute with New Mexico, slave trade in Washington DC be abolished, and strict fugitive slave law
Stephen Douglas got the Compromise of 1850 passed by breaking it down; was Democratic Senator committed to sectionalism and personal gain
Free Soil Party were against slavery in the new territories because they wanted nothing to do with slaves and wanted America to be reserved for whites to be independent farmers and free labor workers
Fugitive Slave Act part of the Compromise of 1850, where blacks accused of being runaways had no right to a trial or a jury or to even plead their case; judges were paid more for returning an alleged slave than they were in declaring them free
Ostend Manifesto Pierce had secretly been trying to buy Cuba from Spain for a while, but then a letter from one of his commissioners in Belgium leaked out in public; made northerners more convinced there was a slave conspiracy to control the US government
Bleeding Kansas after thousands of Missouri people crossed the border to vote in Kansas to ensure it would become a slave state, pro and anti slavery people were at each other’s throats
John Brown fiercely committed abolitionist who murdered five pro slavery people in Kansas, then took Harper’s Ferry but was forced out by federal troops
Charles Sumner Massachusetts senator who gave speech in front of congress in which he insulted South Carolina senator Butler. His cousin Brooks beat Sumner with a cane, and Sumner was out of office for years. Brooks was removed from office
“Slave Power Conspiracy” nothern free labor-ites maintained that the south was involved in a conspiracy to spread slavery further
Republican Party formed in 1854 from remnants of the Whig, Liberty, and Know-Nothing parties; ideology of preserving free labor was the heart of the party
Freeport Doctrine during a congressional debate, Lincoln asked Douglas if territory could exclude slavery prior to formation of a constitution, Douglas replied that if the people didn’t draft any laws legalizing slavery in that territory, then slavery couldn’t exist
Gag Rule Southern US Representatives managed to get congress to table all anti-slavery petitions without being read
James Buchanan President in 1856, supported pro-slavery in Kansas by favoring statehood on the Lecompton Constitution; didn’t believe states had the right to secede, and that he had the power to stop them from seceding
Dred Scott vs Stanford Slave was property of man in Missouri, traveled with master to Illinois where slavery was illegal, and then master died. He sued for freedom and got it, but owner’s brother appealed to state supreme court and won; was major blow to anti-slavery movement
Lecompton Constitution proslavery constitution drawn up in Kansas, but was rejected by Kansas people. Constitution was resubmitted but failed again so Kansas wasn’t allowed in as a state until 1861
Lincoln led the North against the South to preserve the Union, and in 1863 issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Fort Sumter federal fort off of South Carolina coastline, location where first shots of the Civil War were fired
Crittenden Compromise compromise from Kentucky, included an amendment guaranteeing slavery in slave states, and reestablishing the Missouri Compromise
Homestead Act permitted citizens to claim 160 acres of public land
“Greenbacks” printing of paper currency rose during Civil War
Andrew Johnson war democrat who opposed his state’s secession; only senator to stay in Senate after secession
Battle of Antietam union army defeated Confederate army in Maryland in bloodiest battle of the Civil War
54th Maryland Infantry was most renowned of all black units that fought for the union
Sherman’s March to Sea during the last stage of the war, General Sherman decided to advance eastwards towards Atlanta. He then burned the city as well as a 60-mile gap though Georgia until he reached Savanna
US Sanitary Commission Dorthea Dix and group of volunteers established this organization; mobilized number of women to serve as nurses, who by the end of war became the dominant force in nursing
Clara Barton founder of the American Red Cross
Jefferson Davis at a constitutional convention in Montgomery Alabama, the Confederate States named him as their president; he was unsuccessful as president, and rarely provided genuine national leadership
Ulysses S Grant officer in Civil War and won key battles in the West, especially Shiloh and Vicksburg; March of 1864, Lincoln made him commander of Union army; shared Lincoln’s belief in making the enemy armies and resources, not territory, the target of military efforts
Monitor and Merrimack Iron clad ships used in Civil War; one finally stopped the other
Jayhawkers union sympathizers in Kansas organized in bands, marginally less savage than the cSA in Kansas and Missouri
Freedman’s Bureau in March 1865, Congress established this as a means to distribute work to former slaves, establish schools, and modest efforts to redistribute the land; it had authority of operation for only one year, and extension of this was vetoed by Pres. Johnson
Thaddeus Stevens radical Republican from Pennsylvania, urged that political and military leaders of former Confederate States be punished by means of disenfranchisement, and confiscation of goods and land to be distributed to former slaves
Black Codes throughout 1865 and 1866, state legislatures in the South enacted sets of these to reassert the supremacy of the Planter aristocracy and designed to control freed slaves
13th Amendment abolished slavery in all states and territories; states were required to ratify this amendment before they would be readmitted to the Union
14th Amendment amendment offered first constitutional definition of American citizenship, protected corporations and people against due process of law
15th Amendment forbade states or government the right to deny suffrage to any citizen on account of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”; states were required to ratify this amendment before they would be readmitted to the Union
Tenure of Office Act passed by radicals in congress to stop the president from interfering; forbade president form removing civil officials
Civil Service Reform designed to make sure only qualified people got federal jobs, not just supporters of the winning candidate
Credit Mobilier French-owned construction company that helped build Union Pacific Railroad; hoarded millions of dollars from railroad and government, and then transferred large amounts of stock to congressmen and even the VP of Grant’s administration
Compromise of 1877 in election, GOP chose Hayes, Dems chose Tilden. E.C. saw T with 184, one short, and 20 disputed votes, enough to get H the presidency. Compromise was made to give H the votes, but he had to remove remaining federal troops from So., ending reconstruction
Sharecroppers after being freed, slaves didn’t have anything to live off of, so farmers offered to rent them land, lodging, and tools, in return for a large share of the crop; sharecroppers rarely had anything left to sell for themselves
Booker T Washington black man who became rich, stressed importance of education; felt that blacks should forgo agitating for social and political rights, and should concentrate on self-improvement and preparation for equality
Atlanta Compromise outlined by Washington as philosophy of race relations; outlined the fact that blacks should engage in activities to improve their economic lot, then they will be given equality
Jim Crow laws restricting franchise for blacks, segregation of schools
Plessy vs Ferguson in 1896, after Lousisiana law that required separate racial seating on railroads; court ruled that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of equal rights if accommodations were equal
Literacy Tests required voters to demonstrate ability to read and interpret the Constitution; in conjunction with Grandfather clause and Poll tax
Created by: ArielHV