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Civil War

How many states seceded from the Union before Lincoln took office? 7 southern states seceded
How did Lincoln try to prevent the remaining Southern states from seceding from the Union? He pledges not to interfere with slavery where it existed. But he does tell the southern states that seceded that they had no right to secede and it didn't make any sense to secede
Why did Lincoln send provisions to Fort Sumter? He didn't want the last two federal properties to be taken over by the Confederacy and Fort Sumter was running out of supplies
What happened when Lincoln's provisions reached Fort Sumter? What began? The Confederates believed Lincoln sent reinforcements to the fort and attacked the provisions officially starting the Civil War
Battle of Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter Impact It united the North to fight against the South to preserve the Union (Lincoln called on volunteers to fight), Southerners support Confederacy and 4 more states join it
What was Lincoln's priority after the Battle of Fort Sumter? To keep the several border states (slave states that remained in the Union) from leaving the Union
Why was it important to keep border states in the Union? If they left: the south would have more white men to fight on their side, the south's manufacturing capacity would double and they would be in a strategic location to win the war
North advantages during war North had most industrial resources, had a transportation advantage due to railroads, had powerful navy and an established gov't, had population advantage (22 mil to 9 mil), emancipation offers advantages
North disadvantages during war North had lack of leadership (south had stronger leaders), lack of purpose (south was struggling for independence)
South advantages during war South was fighting a defensive war, fighting to preserve way of life and to self-govern, had veteran military officials, cotton diplomacy (hoped to get recognition and financial aid due to cotton importance)
South disadvantages during war South had no navy, no government structure, not well equipped, no railroad system, weak economy, no manufacturing
Conscription Act of 1863 (Union) All able bodied men between 20-45 years of age had to register for the war draft
How could you get out of being drafted under the Conscription Act? By buying a substitute soldier to fight in your place for 300 dollars
What caused the NYC draft riots (July of 1863) Whites and immigrants from NYC felt that they were fighting a war to benefit slaves. They feared that if slaves were freed, they would take Northerners' jobs and would leave them out of work and money
NYC draft riots (July of 1863) Mob of Irish Americans wrecked draft offices, Republican newspaper offices, and the homes of anti slavery leaders. They attacked wealthy men and attacked African Americans.
What did Lincoln proclaim during the war? That he was not fighting the Civil War to end slavery
Why did Lincoln proclaim that he was not fighting the Civil War to end slavery? Because secession was not legal (the south never really left), he needed to maintain the support of border states, fear from white workers in the North, and because of political concerns amongst Northern Democrats
What were the two reasons to free the slaves? Military: freeing slaves undermines economic foundation of the South Ideological: it was the right thing to do and there was pressure to do so
What did Radical Republicans pressure Lincoln to do? Make the war about slavery (Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, etc.)
Battle of Antietam Union victory (technically a draw), bute Robert E Lee's retreat gave Lincoln the victory. Important because it resulted in Lincoln deciding to move forward with the Emancipation Proclamation
What was the Emancipation Proclamation justified as and what did it do? Justified as a military necessity, declared slaves in Confederate states free (not in border states)
What was the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation? The war was no longer just a war against secession, prevented Europe from supporting the Confederacy, gave the Union new soldiers for their army (freed slaves)
What were the limits of the Emancipation Proclamation? The North had no authority over the Confederacy, it did not apply to border states (some slaves still in bondage)
Frederick Douglass Believed that enlistment into the Union army was a chance for freedmen to prove their citizenship
How many African Americans fought in the Civil War? 180,000
Massachusetts 54th Regiment Stormed Fort Wagner in South Carolina and despite their loss, it was the first time black soldiers lead an infantry attack.
How were Blacks prejudiced while fighting in the Army? They were paid less than white men, they had to fight in separate units commanded by white men, most blacks were only given labor heavy jobs,
What are often reduced during a national crisis? Civil liberties
The writ of Habeas Corpus Gave americans the right to be informed of the charges held against them and gave them the right to prove their innocence by having a trial
Why did Lincoln suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus? It was necessary for our nation's security and to reunify the nation
What happened when Lincoln suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus? People were being arrested without being informed of the charges held against them and held without a trial
What happens to presidential power during times of war? It often increases
What did Lincoln do without the consent of Congress? He ordered a blockade and increased the size of the federal army
Challenges for the Confederacy: Cotton Diplomacy Because cotton was so successful in the south, confederate states hoped they could gain European support. They wanted Europe to obtain cotton from them. But their failure at Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation prevented them from doing so.
Challenges for the Confederacy: States Rights The tradition of states rights in the South made it difficult for states to fight the war
Challenges for Lincoln: Republicans v. Moderates Radical Republicans criticized Lincoln for moving to slow on the issue of Emancipation
Challenges for Lincoln: War democrats War democrats supported war, but didn't like how Lincoln handled it, criticizing him
Challenges for Lincoln: Peace democrats Peace democrats opposed the war and wanted negotiated peace among the nation
Who had the majority in Congress during the war and why do they? Republicans do because when the South left the Union, they were forced to give up their right to have political power in Congress
Impact of the Civil War: Lives lost Over 600,000 people died in the Civil War
Impact of the Civil War: Economy Southern economy is completely destroyed and the industry in the North is accelerated because of war
Impact of the Civil War: Laws Republicans pass laws that have a huge impact on the Reconstruction years following the war
Impact of the Civil War: Preservation The Union is preserved, the original goal of the war was accomplished, the idea of secession is ended
Impact of the Civil War: Democracy The Civil War was the real test of democracy in the U.S. and it survives
Impact of the Civil War: Slaves 4 million slaves were freed after the passing and ratification of the 13th amendment
Union Strategies Cut off South's cotton supply to Europe and to invade the South from the West, cutting it in half
Confederate Strategies Wage a war of attrition which would continually inflict losses on the North and wear them down
How did the Union pay for the War? By government implemented taxes and bonds sold directly to citizens (mainly wealthy citizens)
How did the Confederacy pay for the war? By printing money and through government bonds. Printing money led to a large inflation in the South which decreased the popularity of bonds
Created by: MLevy44
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