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cell injury

differences, definition

virchow's triad slowing of blood stream, changes in the vessel wall, changes in blood itself
cell injury? is defined as a variety of stresses a cell encounters as a result of changes in its internal and external environment.
etiology of cell injury 1. genetic causes 2. acquired causes : hypoxia and ischaemia, physical agents, chemical agents and drugs, microbial agents, immunologic agents, nutritional derangements, ageing, psychogenic diseases, iatrogenic factors , idiopathic diseases
name the physical agents that cause cell injury mechanical trauma, chemical trauma, electricity, radiation, rapid changes in atmospheric pressure
name the immunologic agents that cause cell injury hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions, autoimmune diseases.
pathogenesis of cell injury both of reversible and irreversible cell injury should be mentioned.
2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY 1. inability of cell to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction on reperfusion or reoxygenation. 2. disturbance in cell membrane function and also in plasma membrane.
morphology of reversible cell injury 1. hydropic change 2. fatty change 3. hyaline change 4. mucoid change.
synonyms of hydropic change cloudy swelling or vacuolar defgenration
etiology of hydropic changes bacterial toxins, burns, high fever, chemicals, poisons, IV administration of hypertonic glucose.
pathogenesis of hydropic change cloudy swelling --- impaired regulation of Na+ and K+--- intracellular accumulation of Na+ and escape of K+--- rapid flow of water into cell --- cellular swelling.
microscopic changes : cells swollen and microvasculature compressed small clear vacuoles seen small cytoplasmic blebs nucleus appear pale.
2 types of hyaline change intracellular extracellular
examples of intracellular hyaline change 1. hyaline droplets 2. hyaline degeneration or zenker's degeneration 3. mallory's hyaline 4. cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions 5. russell's bodies
examples of extracellular hyaline change 1. hyaline degeneration in leiomyomas 2. hyalinised old scar 3. hyaline arteriosclerosis 4. hyalinised glomeruli corpora amylacea
mucoid change : chief constituent is? mucin
morphology of irreversible cell injury includes: 1. autolysis 2. ncerosis 3. apoptosis 4. gangrene 5. pathologic calcification
autolysis? self digestion 3 types: rapid--- pancreas intermediate--- heart, liver and kidney slow--- fibrous tissue
necrosis? etiology? defined as localised area of death of tissues followed by degradation of tissues by hydrolytic enzymes liberated from dead cells. physical and microbial agents,immunological injury.
pathogenesis of necrosis 1.cell digestion by lytic enzymes 2. denaturation of proteins
types of necrosis coagulative liquefactive caseous fat fibrinoid
coagulative : caused by? commonly affected organs? gross and microscopic features? - irreversible focal injury - heart , kidney, spleen - gross: pale , firm, slightly swollen in early stage ; yellowish, softer, shrunken with progression. microscopic: tombstone appearance
liquefaction necrosis: othername ? caused due to ? examples? gross and microscopic features? - colliquative - ischaemic injury and bacterial and fungal infections - infarct brain , abscess cavity - gross: soft with liquefied centre with necrotic debris , cyst wall microscopic: gliosis in brain and proliferating fibroblasts in abscess cavity
caseous nacrosis: caused by? found in? gross and microscopic features ? - TB infection - centre of foci in TB infections - gross: dry cheese , soft, granular and yellowish microscopically : structureless, eosinophillic, granular debris
fat necrosis: caused by? examples? gross and microscopic feature? - blunt trauma, radiation and surgeries - pancreas, breasts etc. - gross : chalky white appearance in calcium soap, yellowish white appearance. microscopic: cloudy appearance
saponification? - seen in fat necrosis - leaked out free fatty acids along with calcium form calcium soap called saponification.
fibrinoid necrosis: caused by ? examples? microscopic feature? - antigen-antibody complexes deposited in walls of blood vessels along with fibrin. - autoimmune diseases, arthus reaction , peptic ulcer etc. - brightly eosinophillic, hyaline - like deposition
Created by: Dt. Anjali
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