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Civil War

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Lincoln and the Election of 1860 16th president, defeated 3 other candidates for the presidency, led to South Carolina being the first of many states to secede, gained no electoral college votes from Southern states
Jefferson Davis president of the Confederates states of America
Kansas-Nebraska Act established popular sovereignty in new territories; people were able to vote for or against allowing slavery in those territories
Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner with a cane on the floor of the Senate over the issues surrounding slavery
Compromise of 1850 decided that California would become a free state after the Mexican-American War and Utah and New Mexico would decide the issue of slavery for themselves
Uncle Tom's Cabin the book that caused awareness of the horrors of slavery
Lincoln-Douglas Debates a series of seven debates in 1858 which highlighted the controversy over the issue of slavery in the new territories and caused the South to turn against Lincoln
John Brown led a failed raid on the arsenal in Harper's Ferry in order to kill slave owners and cause a slave uprising; he was eventually captured and executed
Anaconda Plan the North's plan to divide the South in half with the Mississippi River being the division line, control the Miss. River, and blockade the South
Dred Scott Decision resulted in slaves being determined non-citizens and therefore did not have the right to sue
Why did Northern whites object to slavery? it violated the principles of the Christian religion and was unethical
Fugitive Slave Act The act required that slaves be returned to their owners, even if they were in a free state. The act also made the federal government responsible for finding, returning, and trying escaped slaves
popular sovereignty rule by the people; decisions made by voting
Advantages of the North strong Navy, population, more soldiers, more factories for munitions and weapons, strong central government, use of railways
Advantages of the South Home territory, people more willing to ration, sacrifice and serve, and better generals,
Emancipation Proclamation put into effect on January 1, 1863, it declared that all persons held as slaves within the rebellious states shall be free
General Robert E. Lee Confederate General of the Army of Northern Virginia, west point graduate, one of the greatest generals in the US at the time, many victories under his command, more men died under his command than any general in the war (incl. Grant)
What was the greatest cause of death of soldiers during the war? infection and disease; 2 dead from disease for every 1 dead from battle
Battle of Gettysburg significance turning point in the war, Meade halts Lee's invasion of the North and prevents him from attempting another invasion into the North again, bloodiest battle of the war
Siege of Vicksburg significance Union victory that gave control of the Mississippi River, occurred around the same time as the victory at Gettysburg marking a huge turning point for the Union
Battle of Antietam significance bloodiest single day of the war, Union victory that forced General Lee to retreat back to Virginia, also led to Lincoln removing Union General McClellan from command
First Battle of Bull Run outcome first major battle, Conf. victory that shocked the North and foreshadowed a long and violent war, Union Gen McDowell led an attack on Conf Gen Beauregard forcing a retreat but did not pursue them leading to reinforcements arriving and a Confederate rout.
What was the purpose of Gen. WT Sherman's "March to the Sea"? to frighten the Southern civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause. Sherman's soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back
new Republican Party's main purpose in 1854 stopping the spread of slavery
Secession Rights The South seceded over states' rights. Confederate states did claim the right to secede, but no state claimed to be seceding for that right.
Why is James Buchanan considered the worst (or one of the worst) presidents in US history? Buchanan's ineffectiveness and inability to act makes him one of the worst presidents in history
What is the impact of John Brown's raid on the arsenal at Harper's Ferry? this raid caused a deeper division between the North and the South, he was seen as a martyr in the North and he caused a great scare in the South
Battle Of Chattanooga significance allowed the Union to control the railways, or "gateway" to the South
Fort Sumter significance first battle of the war, Confederate artillery barraged the fort in South Carolina forcing a surrender, no casualties were recorded, occurred on April 12, 1861
Primary goal of the Union preserve the union, and during the war to reunite the union where slavery was not tolerated
Writ of habeas corpus demands that a public official (such as a warden) deliver an imprisoned individual to the court and show a valid reason for that person's detention
number of Southern states to secede initially 7, then 11 in all
hard war policy aimed at destroying all resources that could aid the Confederate rebellion, used in Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman Union general charged with leading Union forces in crushing campaigns through the South, marching through Georgia and the Carolinas and destroying much of the landscape that could help the Confederates
Confederates wanted foreign help from who? France and Great Britain, by losing at Antietam, the Confederacy lost any hope of France and Great Britain acknowledging the Confederacy and coming to their aid
Gettysburg Address burial ceremony for the fallen Union soldiers at this battle, Lincoln's message was that the living can honor the wartime dead by continuing to fight for the ideas they gave their lives for, such as equality for all, was only a couple minutes long
Pickett's Charge Conf Gen Pickett charged Union lines under Gen George Meade during Battle of Gettysburg failing miserably with extensive casualties, ultimately led to their defeat, 7,000 Confederates died during this charge alone
Appomattox Court House significance battle which was immediately followed by the surrender of Gen Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, first major Conf army to surrender causing a domino effect of others soon to follow
Abraham Lincoln's assassination killed by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater on April 14-15, 1865 who thought this plan would help revive the Confederate cause
number of deaths during the Civil War ~620,000 fatalities, some estimates go in upwards of 800,000 ~1.5 million casualties
Andrew Johnson Lincoln's second term VP, 17th president, tried to carry out Lincoln's plan of reconstruction, was disliked by Congress and eventually the first president impeached and was acquitted by one vote
Reconstruction period following the Civil War that aimed at reincorporating the Southern states back into the Union
13th amendment abolished slavery
14th amendment established citizenship for anyone born or naturalized in the US, including former slaves
15th amendment all men have the right to vote, including former slaves
Southern Homestead Act 1866, this act attempted to solve land ownership problems by selling land at low prices so that southerners, both black and white, could buy it. Many people, however, could still not participate because the low prices were still too high
Sharecropping farmers rented land in rented land in exchange for a percentage their crop
black codes laws passed in the South in order to restrict blacks' freedoms
carpetbaggers northerners who came South to benefit from Reconstruction
scalawags southerners who aided the Republicans during Reconstruction and were hated by most white Southerners
Ku Klux Klan formed to intimidate blacks in the South especially using violence, first grand wizard was a former Confederate officer Nathan Bedford Forrest
Election of 1876 Hayes v Tilden, disputed election based on electoral votes, ended up with the Compromise of 1877 saying Hayes would end reconstruction and 20 electoral votes would be given to him for the majority.
What measures were taken to prevent freedmen from voting? grandfather clause, poll tax, literacy test
Lincoln's Reconstruction plan did not want to punish the South, 10% of states' voting population had to pledge loyalty to the Union and ratify a new constitution stating abolition of slavery, amnesty given to southerners except Confederate leaders
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan he wanted to carry out Lincoln's plan
Congress' (Radical Republicans) Reconstruction plan recovery that imposed harsh standards on the Southern states and supported newly freed slaves in their pursuit of political, economic, and social opportunities
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Created 5 military districts in the south, districts headed by a military official able to appoint and remove state officials, voters registered and pledged oath of loyalty, draft new state constitutions, ratify 14th amendment
Created by: mrmiklosey
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