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POLS Midterm

tyranny Rule by one individual (Negative Form)
Oligarchy Rule by few in Society (Negative Form
Polity Rule by many in Society (Positive Form)
Democracy Rule by many in Society (Positive Form)
Democracy best definition A form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
Republic An indirect democracy, a representative democracy whereby eligible voters (the electorate) choose representatives to carry out their wishes in the government
Constitution An authoritative document that defines the nation's system of government
Monarchy A single sovereign ( king or Queen) exercised rule over a given populace and territory with power transfer based upon heredity, but in which laws and rights were established
Communism A classless society in which goods would be shared be all people with the guidance of an authoritarian ruling party
totalitarianism Communism where the state controlled all aspects of life, including the economic, political, social, and cultural spheres, and where any dissent was quickly punished by the ruling party elite.
socialism The States provide many public goods such as universal health care and public education and also controls the economy or "means of production"
anarchy Situation in which no government authority exists whatsoever with total chaos ensuing
articles of confederation Written in November 17777 by John Dickinson, this authoritative document gave the national government very little real power. A loose association of quasi-independent states. Nat.Gov could not levy taxes,wage war, issue currency or regulate commerce
necessary and proper clause "Elastic clause" allows for future expansion and evolution of the power of the federal government. (implied powers)
reserved powers 10th amendment to the Constitution "The powers not delegated to the united states by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people." (enumerated powers)
Anti-federalist Anti-Constitution, contended power should be decentralized across two levels of government, the national and the state. leaving the states with considerable power and authority
Federalist Forces in favor of the constitution.
Federalist Papers Known as the "Federalist, a series of periodic essays published in newspapers throughout the states, laying out in simple terms, the basic provisions of the Constitution.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system
unitary A centralized, national government retained virtually all government power, as in the case of the British Monarchy.
confederal the central government is quite weak and the entities that making up the confederation, such as states, are the ones with all the power.
federal A system that empowered to some extent both the state and national governments, thereby combining the benefits of both.
supremacy clause Article VI of the Constitution. In conflicts between the state and federal powers, the federal government shall be presumed to win out over the state government.
concurrent powers are powers that are held by both the federal and the state governments
ex post facto law would criminalize some action for the purpose of prosecuting it after someone had already performed the action at a time when it was legal to do so.
full faith and credit clause requires each state to respect "the public acts, records, judicial proceedings of every other state.
dual federalism the federal government and state governments are viewed as each having their own "sphere of influence" in which each exercises power and into which the other may not over reach
cooperative federalism multiple levels of the government work together on implementation, the lines between governmental spheres are blurred and become more fluid.
new federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states
home rule allows cities to make minor changes to their charters without receiving approval from the state legislature.
political socialization The process by which an individual acquires attitudes, beliefs and values relating to the political system of which he is a member and to his own role as a citizen within that political system.
political efficacy A person's sense of being able to accomplish something politically
shay's rebellion An incident in Massachusetts during which debt ridden farmers set out to topple the state government in Boston so that there would be no instrument to enforce their debts.
free rider problem is a person who benefits from something without expending effort or paying for it. In other words, free riders are those who utilize goods without paying for their use
big state strategy Presidential political campaign strategy in which a candidate focuses on winning primaries in large states b/c of their high delegate counts.
bill of rights the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship.
brown v. board of education Court ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality
Bureaucracy a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
checks and balances counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
civil rights act 1964 is a landmark civil rights and labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
civil society society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity.
closed primary Closed primary. People may vote in a party's primary only if they are registered members of that party prior to election day. Independents cannot participate. ... As in closed primaries, registered party members can vote only in their own party's primary.
conservatism commitment to traditional values and ideas with opposition to change or innovation
delegate a person sent or authorized to represent others, in particular an elected representative sent to a conference
democratic theory
direct democracy a form of democracy in which all laws and policies imposed by governments are determined by the people themselves, rather than by representatives who are elected by the people.
due process of law fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
electoral college a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president
enumerated powers Reserved powers, Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights.
fairness doctrine a former federal policy in the US requiring television and radio broadcasters to present contrasting viewpoints on controversial issues of public importance.
FCC is an independent agency of the United States government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States.
freedom the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint.
gender gap the discrepancy in opportunities, status, attitudes, etc., between men and women.
Georgia bill of rights Article 1 of the constitution of Georgia, To set limits on what the government can and cannot do in regard to personal liberties, the origin and structure of government, general provisions and the recognition of marriage
Georgia constitution and the amendment process proposed Georgia legislature and must be approved by a 2/3 majority vote of both the state House and state Senate followed by ratification by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly at the next general election
Georgia executive branch The executive branch consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and other statewide elected officials and agencies serving under the Governor. The Governor is the chief executive of the state of Georgia. he or she is limited to two four-year terms.
Georgia Judges judges are elected by popular vote from the entire state in the cases of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals or from a given circuit. Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals serve for terms of 6y Judges of other courts serve for terms of 4y.
Georgia State Legislatures The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature . It is bicameral, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each of the General Assembly's 236 members serve two-year terms and are directly elected by constituents of their district.
Georgia voting laws Be a legal resident of the county. Be at least 17 1/2 years of age to register and 18 years of age to vote. Not be serving a sentence for conviction of a felony involving moral turpitude. Have not been found mentally incompetent by a judge.
Glass ceiling an unofficially acknowledged barrier to advancement in a profession, especially affecting women and members of minorities.
Government the governing body of a nation, state, or community.
Halo effect Halo effect is the tendency for positive impressions of a person, company, brand or product in one area to positively influence one's opinion or feelings in other areas.
Implied powers Implied powers are political powers granted to the United States government that aren't explicitly stated in the Constitution.
Justice just behavior or treatment. a judge or magistrate, in particular a judge of the Supreme Court of a country or state.
Legal voting age amendment Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XXVI) lowered the minimum voting age in the United States from 21 to 18.
Legitimate Government A government generally acknowledged as being in control of a nation and deserving formal recognition, which is symbolized by the exchange of diplomats between that government and the governments of other countries.
Libel a published false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation; a written defamation.
liberalism the holding of liberal views.
Mercantilism belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
muckraking the action of searching out and publicizing scandalous information about famous people in an underhanded way.
one-party system A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
open primary a primary election in which voters are not required to declare party affiliation
Order A group of people upon whom a government or sovereign has formally conferred honor for unusual service or merit, entitling them to wear a special insignia: the Order of the Garter.
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities as long as the segregated facilities were equal in quality – a doctrine that came to be known as "separate but equal".
political movement In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Politics the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
Polling record the opinion or vote of.
Power problem the need to grant the government enough power to effectively address the problems that people expect the government to address while also limiting power enough so that government can be held accountable,
Prior restraint judicial suppression of material that would be published or broadcast, on the grounds that it is libelous or harmful. In US law, the First Amendment severely limits the ability of the government to do this.
Proportional representation an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
Public Good a commodity or service that is provided without profit to all members of a society, either by the government or a private individual or organization.
Public opinion views prevalent among the general public.
Rational Choice theory is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior
Recall A political recall is the process by which citizens can remove elected officials from office before their term is completed.
Red Tape excessive bureaucracy or adherence to rules and formalities, especially in public business
Referendum a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.
Response bias is the tendency of a person to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or misleadingly. For example, they may feel pressure to give answers that are socially acceptable.
restorative justice a system of criminal justice which focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community at large.
retributive justice a system of criminal justice based on the punishment of offenders rather than on rehabilitation.
Separation of Powers an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Shield Laws a law that protects witnesses from revealing certain information, especially in court
Slander the action or crime of making a false spoken statement damaging to a person's reputation.
Social Contract Theory says that people live together in society in accordance with an agreement that establishes moral and political rules of behavior.
Socialization the process of learning to behave in a way that is acceptable to society.
State of Nature The state of nature, in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law, is the hypothetical life of people before societies came into existence.
Straw Polls an unofficial ballot conducted as a test of opinion.
Survey Research is the collection of data attained by asking individuals questions either in person, on paper, by phone or online.
The Rule of Law the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by subordinating it to well-defined and established laws.
Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory.
Thomas Paine American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. He authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution and inspired the patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Great Britain.
Trustee role played by elected representatives who listen to the constituents' opinions and then use their best judgment to make final decisions.
Two-party system A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the political landscape
Unicameral Legislature is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
Voting Rights Act 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Watchdog The role the press plays by keeping track of and helping make political reputations, note who is being mentioned as a presidential candidate, and help decide who is winning and losing in Washington politics.
Women the right to vote amendment 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920) ... Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote.
Yellow journalism journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration.
Created by: Mcastorena93
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