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Ch. 8 - 9.2

TermDefinition
laissez-faire policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
judicial review the right of the supreme court to determine if a law violates the constitution
customs duties taxes on foreign imported goods
Judiciary Act of 1801 Act passed by Congress that set up regional courts and created new positions in the judicial branch
John Marshall Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams
Marbury vs. Madison 3 principles of judicial review: Constitution is the supreme law,; Constitution must be followed when there is a conflict, or disagreement, between it and any other law; the judicial branch must uphold the Constitution and nullify unconstitutional laws.
Conestoga wagon a sturdy vehicle topped with white canvas and used by pioneers to move west (settlers loaded their household goods on these and moved west in search of land and adventure)
secede to leave or withdraw
Napoleon Bonaparte France's leader who wanted to create empires in Europe and North America
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Leaders of Louisiana Territory expedition
Sacagawea hired by Lewis and Clark as interpreter
Zebulon Pike led two expeditions to Great Plains and Rocky Mountains (1805-1807)
precedent a tradition
cabinet a group of advisers to the president
national debt the amount of money a national government owes to other governments or its people
bond a note issued by the government, which promises to pay off a loan with interest
unconstitutional not agreeing or consistent with the Constitution
tariff a tax on imports or exports
Thomas Jefferson led the Department of State (the Secretary of State) and handled relations with other nations
Alexander Hamilton led the Department of Treasury (the Secretary of the Treasury) and handled financial matters
Henry Knox led the Department of War (the Secretary of War) and provided for the nation's defense
Edmund Randolph served as Attorney General and handled the government's legal affairs
Judiciary Act of 1789 Established a federal court system with 13 district courts, 3 circuit courts, and the Supreme Court. Federal courts had the power to reverse state decisions. The Supreme Court would be the final authority.
John Jay led the Supreme Court (Chief Justice), helped to write treaty between Americans and Great Britain, not much support because it did not address impressment
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments added to the Constitution. Guaranteed personal liberties and limited the government. Written by James Madison. (December 1791)
neutrality a position of not taking sides in a conflict
impressment forcing people into service, as in the navy
Whiskey Rebellion An armed protest against the tax on whiskey. Farmers turned violent and attacked tax collectors and burned down buildings. Washington ordered force to be used if necessary. Helped develop strength of government. (July 1794)
Battle of Fallen Timbers Native Americans demanded all settlers north of the Ohio River leave. Washington sent General Anthony Wayne and an army. Americans defeated Native Americans led by Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. Took place in present-day Ohio. (August 1794)
Treaty of Greenville Native Americans agreed to surrender most of the land in present-day Ohio (1795)
Edmond Genet French diplomat sent to recruit American volunteers to attack British ships
Proclamation of Neutrality Prohibited American citizens from fighting in France and Britain's war. Prohibited French and British warships in American ports.
Jay's Treaty British practiced impressment on American crews which angered Americans. Agreed the British would withdraw from America. It did not deal with the issue of impressment. Negotiated by John Jay (1794)
Pinckney's Treaty Spanish leaders feared Americans and the British would team up against them. This treaty settled differences with Spain, gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right to trade in New Orleans (1795)
partisan favoring one side of an issue
implied powers powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution
caucus a meeting held by a political party to choose their party's candidate for president or decide policy
alien an immigrant living in a country where he or she is not a citizen
sedition activities aimed at weakening established government
nullify to cancel or to make ineffective
states' rights rights and powers independent of the federal government that are reserved for the states by the Constitution
Federalists Political party that supported Washington, was led by Hamilton, wanted strong federal government, supported tariffs, had a loose interpretation of Constitution, and believed that they federal government has implied powers.
Republicans Political party led by Jefferson and Madison, which believed in limited government powers, free trade, a strict interpretation of Constitution, a federal government limits powers to those needed to carry out the Constitution.
XYZ affair Adams sent a delegation to Paris to try to resolve the French's conflict regarding Jay's Treaty. Charles de Talleyrand refused to meet up with Americans. He sent 3 agents instead who demanded a bribe and a loan before they could meet.
Alien Act allowed president to imprison immigrants and to send those he considered dangerous out of the country (1798)
Sedition Act made activities aimed at weakening the established government illegal, made it a crime to speak, write, or publish "false, scandalous, and malicious" criticisms of the government (1789)
Naturalization Act required that immigrants be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship (1798)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Drafted by Jefferson and Madison, passed by the Virginia and Kentucky legislature. Claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution. Supported states' rights (1798 and 1799)
Treaty of Mortefontaine Treaty between France and US. Agreed French would stop attacking American ships. Hurt Adam's chance for re-election (1800)
Created by: MsFrankRL
 

 



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