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3 types lab hazards? Biological/infectious, mechanical, chemical
4 types of infectious waste (hazards) per the CDC & EPA? Microbiologic/cultural material, pathologic material, blood, sharp objects
Mechanical hazards include? Sharp instruments, glass, electronic hazards, latex sensitivity, poor ergonomics
Chemical hazards include? Toxic, corrosive, fire, explosion hazards
For chemical safety OSHA requires employers to? Provide MSDS, label chemicals, maintain hazard communication program, maintain chemical hygiene plan, train employees who use hazardous chemicals, inform employees who don't work w/ chemicals of hazards
3 ways hazardous chemicals enter the body & how to prevent? Ingestion - no eating/drinking/smoking, absorption - provide gloves, inhalation - provide fume hoods
PEL Permissible exposure limit, amount of chemical exposed to averaged over 8 hrs
STEL Short-term exposure limit, Max amount in 15 min
TWA Time-weighted average, measured concentration calculated to 8 hr exposure
Formaldehyde PEL & STEL? PEL 0.75 ppm, STEL 2.0 ppm
Toxic substance hazards include? Cancer, tumors, defects in offspring, death, irritation/sensitization, diminution of mental alertness
Common toxic chemicals? Formaldehyde, mercury, chromium, silver, hydrocarbons
Corrosive substances are those that_ By direct contact destroy mild steel faster than 6.35mm/yr
Common corrosive chemicals? Acids
Corrosive substance hazards include? Injury to skin, eyes by contact, damage to respiratory, alimentary by inhalation/ingestion, disruption of cell membranes, coagulation of proteins
A flammable solvent is a_ Liquid w/ flash point <60°C & vapor pressure <40 psi at 37.8°C
Flash point of toluene? 4.4°C
Flash point of xylene? 27.2°C
Flash point of isopentane? < -76°C
Flash point of benzene? 0°C
Flash point of methanol? 11.1°C
Flash point of ethanol? 12.8°C
Flash point of isopropanol? 11.7°C
4 criteria EPA uses to classify waste as hazardous Ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, extraction procedure toxicity
Ignitability hazard if_ Nonaqueous liquid <24% alcohol w/ flash point <60°C
Corrosivity hazard if_ Aqueous solution w/ pH <=2 or >=12.5
Reactive substances are those that_ react violently w/ water, are unstable, explosive, contain cyanide or sulfide & generate toxic gas at pH 2 to 12.5
Extraction procedure toxicity tested by__ Extracting waste @ pH 5, & analyzing for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NFPA number hazard rating system 4 - severe 3 - serious 2 - dangerous 1 - minor 0 - none
NFPA color hazard rating system Yellow - reactivity Red – flammability hazard White -special hazard symbol Blue - health
Class A fire extinguishers use_ Water-based foam, multipurpose dry, loaded stream
Class B fire extinguishers use__ CO2, Halon, dry chemical, foam, loaded stream
Class C fire extinguishers use__ Halon, CO2, dry chemical
Class D fire extinguishers use__ Non-reactive dry powder media
Class A fires are__ Wood, paper plastic, textiles fires, extinguish w/ water
Class B fires are__ Flammable liquids, gas fires, block oxygen
Class C fires are__ Electrical fires, extinguish w/ non-conductive media
Class D fires are__ Combustible & reactive metal fires, difficult to extinguish
EPA Environmental Protection Agency, regulatory & enforcing agency for hazardous waste
CDC Center for Disease Control, advisory agency to EPA
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration
PPE Personal protective equipment; gloves, face shield, glasses, coat, apron, breathing protection
Sharps containers must be: Color coded, closable, puncture-resistant, upright, easy access, easy to see when full; regulated by OSHA under blood-borne pathogens
MSD's are: Musculoskeletal disorders/cumulative trauma disorders, e.g. carpal tunnel, trigger finger, tendonitis, thoracic outlet compression syndrome
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard OSHA, 1993, to protect workers who may come into contact w/ potentially infectious material
Universal Precautions Treat all specimens as if highly contagious
CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, caused by very stable & resistant prions, causes spongiform changes to cortex & subcortical white matter, transmissible from animals to humans, latency period of 20+ yrs,
How to dispose of microbiologic or culture material & blood? Down the drain w/ bleach, if known pathogen-free just water
How to dispose of pathological material & sharps hazards? Incinerate or steam sterilize
Prions are resistant to? Formalin, organic solvents, enzymes, heat, ionizing radiation, freezing, drying, autolysis
Prions are susceptible to? Autoclaving 1 hr @ 121 °C, 1N NaOH 1 hr, conc'd formic acid 1 hr, 5% sodium hypochlorite 2 hr
Fix tissue for known or suspected CJD: Fix brain in formalin approx. 48 hrs, or phenol sat'd formalin 72 hrs, whole brain fixed 10-14 days, tissue in conc'd formic acid 1 hr, tissue in fresh formalin 48 hrs
Solutions & equipment used w/ suspected CJD tissue must be neutralized with? 1N NaOH 1 hr
Hazard Communication Standard OSHA, 1988, "Right to Know Law," workers must be informed of hazards of chemicals used in workplace so they can protect themselves
Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory Standard "The laboratory Standard," mandates existence of chemical hygiene plan
Chemical hygiene plan includes: Chemical hazard info, chemical use training, SDS training, chemical inventory, proper labeling of chemicals, SOPs, inform non-employees of lab hazards
The Formaldehyde Standard 1992-1993, sets exposure limits & action levels
Fire: Rapid oxidation in presence of ignition source w/ liberation of heat & light
Fire triangle: fuel, ignition source, oxygen
Flash point: Lowest temperature @ which sufficient vapors prod'd to form ignitable mixture w/ air near surface of liquid/container
CESQG Conditionally exempt small quantity generator
SQG Small quantity generator
LQG Large quantity generator
SAA Satellite waste accumulation area
Acids may be disposed of down the drain if__ They are between pH 3 and pH 11
What does LD50 mean? LD50 is the calc'd doze of a chemical that is expected to kill 50% of an experimental population
Created by: CCF



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